Other Known Aliases – endolymphatic hydrops
Definition – abnormal fluid and ion homeostasis of the inner that leads to distortion and distention of the membranous, endolymph-containing portions of the labyrnthine system. It is currently unclear why this occurs and several etiologies have been proposed.
Clinical Significance – Ménière’s disease classically has the triad of tinnitus, sensorineural hearing loss, and episodic vertigo lasting from 20 minutes to 24 hours. The course and severity are variable and the frequency may actually decline over time. Treatment is geared towards diet and lifestyle modifications, vestibular suppressants, diuretics, and interventional procedures in severe or refractory cases.
History – Named after Prosper Ménière (1799-1862), who was a French physician and recieved his medical doctorate from the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris in 1828. He studied and assisted Guillaume Dupuytren at this famed hospital in France. During a particularly bad outbreak of cholera, he was sent by the king to Aude and Haute-Garonne to oversee this medical campaign and was so successful that he was made a knight of the Legion of Honour. Later, he became chief of medicine at the Imperial Institution for Deaf Mutes in Paris and published his findings on his eponymous disease in 1861.
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- Ménière P. Sur une forme particulière de surdité grave dépendant d’une lésion de l’oreille interne. Gazette médicale de Paris. 1861;S3(16):29.