Ep-PAINE-nym



Sphincter of Oddi

Other known aliaseshepatopancreatic sphincter, Glisson’s sphincter

Definitionmuscular ring surrounding the major duodenal papilla at the 2nd portion of the duodenum.

Clinical Significancethe sphincter of Oddi allows for drainage of the biliary and pancreatic systems and dysfunction (mainly spasming) can can cause pancreatitis.  It is in a constant state of contraction unless relaxed by cholesytokinin released by vasoactive intestinal peptide.  Opioids, specifically morphine, has been shown to increase the risk of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.

HistoryNamed after Ruggero Ferdinando Antonio Guiseppe Vincenzo Oddi (1864-1913), who was an Italian physiologist and anatomist from Perugia.  He spent is formative years studying medicine at Perugia, Bologna, and Florence and was appointed head of the Physiology Institute at the University of Genoa in 1894.  In 1887, at only 23 years old, he described his eponymous structure in his paper “D’une disposition a sphincter speciale de l’ouverture du canal choledoque”.  His career, unfortunately, was derailed and cut short due to opioid addiction many believe was as a result of using morphine derivatives to study dysfunction of the sphincter.


References

  • Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  • Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  • Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  • Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  • Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  • Helm JF, Venu RP, Geenen JE, et al. Effects of morphine on the human sphincter of Oddi. Gut. 1988; 29(10):1402-7. [pubmed]
  • Behar J.  Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Biliary Tract: the Gallbladder and Sphincter of Oddi – A Review.  ISRN Physiology, vol. 2013, Article ID 837630, 15 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/837630
  • Oddi R. D’une disposition a sphincter speciale de l’ouverture du canal choledoque. Arch Ital Biol. 1887;8:317–322
  • Loukas M, Spentzouris G, Tubbs RS, Kapos T, Curry B. Ruggero Ferdinando Antonio Guiseppe Vincenzo Oddi. World journal of surgery. 2007; 31(11):2260-5. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Duct of Santorini

Other known aliases accessory pancreatic duct

Definitionportion of the dorsal duct distal to the dorsal-ventral fusion point during embryonic development

Clinical Significance85% of the population have a single, main pancreatic duct and 15% can have an accessory duct that either drains into the duodenum by a separate ampulla (2/3), or drains into the main duct (1/3).  These anatomical variants need to be explored prior to instrumentation for pancreatic pathology as it can occur with pancreas divisum, which makes the accessory duct the principle drainage duct for the pancreas.

HistoryNamed after Giovanni Domenico Santorini (1681-1737), who was an Italian anatomist and son of an apothecary.  He spent his formative years studying medicine throughout Bologna, Padua, and Pisa, where he received his medical doctorate in 1701.   He performed anatomical dissection demonstration in Venice for 23 years, during which he published his most famous work entitled Observationes Anatomicae.  This work was considered one of the most detailed and important anatomical texts of the time and gave way to descriptions of twelve different anatomic eponyms accredited to Santorini.

References

  • Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  • Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  • Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  • Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms.
  • http://www.whonamedit.com
  • Up To Date. www.uptodate.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Duct of Wirsung

Other known aliasesmain pancreatic duct

DefinitionThis is the main pancreatic duct that joins the pancreas to the common bile prior to the ampulla of Vater before emptying into the second portion of the duodenum

Clinical SignificanceHaving a single, major pancreatic duct is the most common anatomic variant for pancreatic anatomy, but some individuals may have an accessory duct that could be functional.  The issue with this, of course, is management of pancreatic pathology so imaging may be required prior to instrumentation or surgical management.

HistoryNamed after Johann Georg Wirsung (1589-1643), who was a German anatomist from Padua.  He made this discovery while dissecting a criminal (Zuane Viaro) who was recently hanged for murder in 1642.  Instead of formally publishing his findings, he engraved the sketch on a copper plate so numerous casting could be made and sent to the leading anatomists of the time.  This finding is not without controversy.  One year after this discovery, Wirsung was murdered in his house late at night by a Belgian student named Giacomo Cambier over a quarrel of first discovered this duct.  In a cruel twist of fate, 5 years after his death, one of Wirsung’s students who was assisting in the dissection, Moritz Hoffman, claimed it was he who discovered this duct in a turkey rooster a year before Wirsung.

Original copper plate etching
Painting of the murder of Wirsung

References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Howard JM, Hess W, Traverso W. Johann Georg Wirsüng (1589-1643) and the pancreatic duct: the prosector of Padua, Italy. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 1998; 187(2):201-11. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Morison’s Pouch

Other known aliaseshepatorenal recess/fossa, right posterior subhepatic space

Definitiona potential space between the liver and the right kidney

Clinical SignificanceThis a space where fluid can accumulate in the setting of ascites or abdominal trauma and be seen on CT or ultrasound.  It is one of the view of a Focused Assessment of Sonography in Trauma (FAST) exam. Typically, 30-40mL of fluid needs to be present to be visualized.

Ultrasound
Computed Tomography

HistoryNamed after James Rutherford Morison (1853-1939), a British surgeon who received his medical degree from the University of Edinburgh in 1874.  He was also an assistant and “surgical dresser” for Joseph Lister early in his career and later founded a school of surgery at the University of Durham where he made his name as a prolific instructor of surgery.  He is well known as a pioneer of modern surgery with several of his contemporaries noting he was twenty years ahead of his time and was a driving force of he surgical arts in Great Britain at the turn of the 20th century. 


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. http://livesonline.rcseng.ac.uk/biogs/E004690b.htm

Ep-PAINE-nym



Zenker’s Diverticulum

Other Known Aliasespharyngeal diverticulum

Definitionsac-like outpouching of the mucosa and submucosa through Killian’s triangle, which is the area of structural weakness between the cricopharyngeus and lower inferior constrictor muscles.

Clinical SignificanceThere are actually three different types of diverticulae that can form in this region and are based on anatomic location:

  • Zenker’s – immediately above the upper esophageal sphincter
  • Traction – near midpoint of the esophagus
  • Epiphrenic – immediately above the lower esophageal sphincter

Signs and symptoms of a Zenker’s diverticulum are pretty awful and include dysphagia, pulmonary aspiration, and halitosis from partially rotting food in the outpoaching.  It is diagnosed via barium swallow under flouroscopy. The majority of the patients are male and present after the age of 60.  Management is surgical resection.

HistoryNamed after Friedrich Albert von Zenker (1825-1898), who was German physician and pathologist and received his medical doctorate at Leipzig in 1851.    He held numerous teaching posts including chief prosector and professor of general pathology and anatomy at Dresden city hospital.  Dr. Zenker, along with Hugo Wilhelm von Ziemssen, published a case series and literature review on his eponymous diverticulum in 1867 entitled “Krankheiten des Oesophagus”. He also was the first to document and describe trichinosis in a girl who died in 1860, proving that the once thought harmless parasite could cause severe disease.

Friedrich Albert von Zenker

References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. F. A. Zenker and Hugo Wilhelm von Ziemssen:
    Krankheiten des Oesophagus. Leipzig, 1867
  7. Ueber die Trichinenkrankheit des Menschen. Virchows Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin, Berlin, 1860, 18: 561-572.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Somogyi Phenomenon

 

Other Known Aliasesposthypoglycemic hyperglycemia

 

Definitionrebounding hyperglycemia in the setting of a undetected hypoglycemic event

 

Image

 

Clinical Significance It had been hypothesized that patients who had a hypoglycemic event during sleep would have rebound hyperglycemia due to the protective mechanism of the body to counteract this.  This would result in an undetectable change that would cause hyperglycemia in the morning.  This hypothesis has been proven wrong by numerous studies, but it is still a favorite among endocrinologists to pimp their students on.

 

History – Named after Michael Somogyi (1883-1971), who was a Hungarian American biochemist and received his doctorate degree from the University of Budapest in 1914.  He took a position as professor of biochemistry in 1922 at the Washington University’s Medical School in St. Louis, where later that year the first child with diabetes was treated with an insulin prepared by Somogyi himself.  His career work revolved around diabetes and theorized that insulin itself could causes unstable diabetes.  He published this paper describing the phenomenon that bears his name in 1938 in the Weekly Bulletin of the St. Louis Medical Society entitled “Insulin as a cause of extreme hyperglycemia and instability”.  He also went on to develop the test for serum amylase to help diagnose acute pancreatitis.  Dr. Somogyi died from a stroke on July 21st, 1971.

 

Michael Somogyi early portrait cropped 01.03.002.tif


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. M. Somogyi, “Insulin as a cause of extreme hyperglycemia and instability,” Weekly Bulletin of the St Louis Medical Society, 1938, 
  7. Tordjman KM, Havlin CE, Levandoski LA, White NH, Santiago JV, Cryer PE. Failure of nocturnal hypoglycemia to cause fasting hyperglycemia in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The New England journal of medicine. 1987; 317(25):1552-9. [pubmed]
  8. Hirsch IB, Smith LJ, Havlin CE, Shah SD, Clutter WE, Cryer PE. Failure of nocturnal hypoglycemia to cause daytime hyperglycemia in patients with IDDM. Diabetes care. 1990; 13(2):133-42. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Peyronie’s Disease

 

Other Known Aliasesnone

 

Definitionan acquired, localized fibrotic disorder of the tunica albuginea where thick, fibrous plaques compress the corpora cavernosa

 

Image result for peyronie's disease

 

Clinical Significance The pathogenesis of Peyronie’s disease is unknown and is postulated to be multifactorial.  Patients experience pain, penile deformity, and sexual dysfunction

 

History – Named after François de la Peyronie (1678-1747), who was a French surgeon and received his medical training as a barber-surgeon in Montpellier in 1695.  He continued his academic career teaching and practicing surgery and anatomy throughout France.  In 1736, he was appointed first-surgeon to King Louis XV and was instrumental in organizing formal training in the surgical arts and was a major force in the creation of the 1743 law that banned barbers from practicing surgery.  Also in 1743, he first described the eponymous disease in a book on ejaculation dysfunction where described “indurations of the cavernous bodies like rosary beads” leading to penile curvature.  His last name, lapeyronie, means litter stone because his father was a stone cutter.  Its a shame he didn’t pursue management of kidney stones as his claim to fame.

 

 

 


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Fischer LP, Ferrandis JJ, Blatteau JE. [François de Lapeyronie, from Montpellier (1678-1747). “Surgery restorer” and universal spirit. The soul, Musc, rooster eggs]. Histoire des sciences medicales. ; 43(3):241-8. [pubmed]