Ep-PAINE-nym



Meckel’s Diverticulum

Other Known Aliasesnone

DefinitionVestigial remnant of the omphalomesenteric (vitiline) duct

Clinical Significance It is the most common malformation in the GI tract and is mainly asymptomatic.  When symptoms do occur, it commonly presents as painless, rectal bleeding in children.  The “Rule of 2s” will help you remember the facts of this pathology:

  • Effects 2% of the population
  • 2% of these will be symptomatic by age 2
  • 2 types of heterotopic tissue
  • Boy-to-girl ratio is 2:1
  • Usually 2″ in length
  • 2′ from the ileocecal valve

HistoryNamed after Johann Friedrich Meckel, the Younger (1781-1833), who was a German anatomist and received his medical doctorate from the University of Halle in 1802. He then went on to become full professor of anatomy, surgery, and obstetrics at the University of Halle in 1808 after studying Würzburg, Vienna, and Paris. He made tremendous advancements in the area of anatomy and embryonic development with special attention to birth defects and abnormalities, where he pioneered the early study of teratology. He first published his eponymous finding in 1809 in an article entitled “Über die Divertikel am Darmkanal” in the Halle Archives of Physiology. Of note, he comes from a prestigous medical family, where both his father, grandfather, and brother were physicians….hence the surname “the Younger”.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Stallion A, Shuck JM.  Meckel’s Diverticulum.  Surgical Treatment: Evidence-Based and Problem-Oriented.  2001 [pubmed]
  7. Blackbourne LH.  Surgical Recall.  6th ed. 2012
  8. J. F. Meckel. Über die Divertikel am Darmkanal. Archiv für die Physiologie, Halle, 1809, 9: 421–453
  9. Klunker R, Göbbel L, Musil A, Tönnies H, Schultka R. Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833) and modern teratology. Annals of Anatomy. 2002; 184(6):535-40. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Rovsign’s Sign

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitionpalpation of the left lower quadrant causes perceived pain in the right lower quadrant

Clinical Significance A positive Rovsing’s sign is suggestive of appendicitis. There are two mechanisms that illicit this response. First, palpation of the left lower quadrant stretch the peritoneal lining over the appendix and causes pain. Second, deep palpation of descending colon in the left lower quadrant causes the gas present to stretch the lumen of the colon and appendix causing pain.

HistoryNamed after Niels Thorkild Rovsing (1862-1927), who was a Danish surgeon and received his medical doctorate from the University of Copenhagen in 1885. He went on to become professor of operative surgery there in 1899, as well as chief surgeon at Louise-Børnehospital and Red Cross Hospital. He was a huge advocate for better surgical accommodations for patients, even going so far as to commission his own private surgical nursing home to care for his postoperative patients. He was international recognized as an accomplished abdominal surgeon, writing extensively on these surgical diseases. He first published his findings of his eponymous exam finding in 1907 in an article entitled “Indirect cause of typical pain at McBurney’s point”.

He also has several other surgical eponyms attributed to him including:

  • Rovsing Operation I and II for horseshoe kidney
  • Rovsing Syndrome

References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. N. T. Rovsing. Indirektes Hervorrufen des typischen Schmerzes an McBurney’s Punkt. Ein Beitrag zur diagnostik der Appendicitis und Typhlitis. Zentralblatt für Chirurgie, Leipzig, 1907, 34: 1257-1259.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Addison’s Disease

Other Known Aliasesprimary adrenal insufficiency

Definitionautoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex that produces cortisol

Clinical Significance In times of physiologic stress, the adrenal glands are unable to produce and secrete cortisol, which is a key hormone in the “fight-or-flight” response.  If the stress is significant (trauma, surgery, hemorrhage, etc.), then the patient can not mount a compensatory response to this stress and can have life-threatening consequences.

HistoryNamed after Thomas Addison (1793-1860), an English physician who received his medical doctorate from the University of Edinburgh Medical School in 1815. He was a house physician at Guy’s Hospital and established himself as a prolific teacher and lecturer, often attracting physicians from all over London. He first described his eponymous disease in a short note in the London Medical Gazette called “Anaemia – Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules”.  This was then followed up by the more well known article “On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsule” in 1855, which is largely considered the beginning of the study of the adrenal glands.  The disease eponym was original given to Dr. Addison by the French physician, Armand Trousseau, after fierce debate among experts as to whether the disease actually existed.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Pearce JM. Thomas Addison (1793-1860). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2004; 97(6):297-300. [pubmed]
  7. Addison T.  On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules.  1855.  London: Samuel Highley.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Cushing Disease/Syndrome

Other Known Aliaseshypercortisolism,

Definitionconstellation of signs and symptoms due to excessive cortisol. This can be caused by several different mechanism that affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis:

  • CRH secretion by hypothalamus
  • ACTH secretion by:
    • Anterior pituitary
    • Ectopic tumor
  • Cortisol secretion adrenal glands by:
    • Adrenal hyperplasia
    • Adrenal tumor
  • Exogenous administration of corticosteroids

Clinical Significance This is one of the more common endocrinologic pathologies you will see in clinical practice. Classic presentation includes obesity, abdominal striae, “moon face”, “buffalo hump”, and hirsutism. Diagnosis is made by obtaining a 24-hour urine cortisol measurement

HistoryNamed after Harvey Williams Cushing (1869-1939), who was an American surgeon and pioneering neurosurgeon of the early 20th century. He received his medical doctorate from Harvard Medical School in 1895. He completed his internship at Massachussets General Hospital and went on to do a surgical residency under William Halsted at John Hopkins Hospital. He trained under Kocher in England for several years before returning stateside and setting up practice in Baltimore. One of his greatest contributions to western medicine was his introduction of blood pressure management he learned from Scipione Riva-Rocci in Italy during his time in Europe.

At the age of 32, he achieved associate professor at Johns Hopkins Hospital and was placed in full charge of all surgery of the central nervous system. In 1912, he first described what would become his eponymous disease, but before he could publish it, he was called to serve during the first world war as the director for a field hospital in France for the British. It was during this appointment that he cared for a fatally wounded soldier by the name of Lt. Edward Revere Osler, son of William Osler. He formally published his findings on his eponymous disease in 1932 in an article entitled “The Basophil Adenoma of the Pituitary Body and Their Clinical Manifestations: Pituitary Basophilism”.

During his career, he was regarded as the world’s leading teacher of neurosurgeons for in the first decades of the 20th century and held professorships at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Brigham Hospital in Boston, Harvard Medical School, Yale School of Medicine, as well as honorary Fellowship in the Royal College of Surgeons. He also was awarded the 1926 Pulitzer Prize for Biography for his biography on the life of William Osler and was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 28 times.

Cushing (far left) with Osler (second from right) and Kelley (second from left). Johns Hopkins Hospital. 1900.

References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. http://doc1.med.yale.edu/historical/cushing/hopkins.html
  7. Hansson N, Schlich T. “Highly qualified loser”? Harvey Cushing and the Nobel Prize. Journal of neurosurgery. 2015; 122(4):976-9. [pubmed]
  8. Cushing H. The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 1969; 44(4):180-1. [pubmed]
  9. Starling PH. The case of Edward Revere Osler. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps. 2003; 149(1):27-9. [pubmed]
  10. Ellis H. Harvey Cushing: Cushing’s disease. Journal of perioperative practice. 2012; 22(9):298-9. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Loop of Henle

Other Known Aliasesansa nephroni

Definitionportion of the nephron that goes from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule. There are four portions of this structure:

  • Thin descending segment
  • Thin ascending segment
  • Ascending limb
  • Cortical thick ascending limp

Clinical Significance the loop of Henle creates an area of high urea concentration with secretion and reabsorption of water and electrolytes. This is also the portion of the nephron where the aptly named “loop diuretics” to manage blood pressure by means of excess fluid excretion.

HistoryNamed after Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle (1809-1885), who was a German physician, pathologist, and anatomist and received his medical doctorate from the University of Bonn in 1832. He spent his early career as a prosector for Johannes Müller in Berlin where he published furiously on numerous facets of human and animal anatomy and physiology. He then went on to become the chair of anatomy at the University of Zurich, where he became one of the early adopters and advocates for the study of pathophysiology as a single distinct discipline. He also set the early argument for the germ theory in an essay entitled “On Miasma and Contagia”. His life’s work culminated in the publishing of the Handbook of Systematic Human Anatomy in 1855, which was the most complete and comprehensive work at that time.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Jefferson Fracture

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitionburst fracture of C1 that results in a multi-part fracture of the anterior and posterior arches.

Clinical Significance the most common mechanism of injury for Jefferson fractures is direct axial loading or hyperextension seen in diving injuries or falls. Most are unstable and require emergency stabilization via traction or halo placement while awaiting surgery.

HistoryNamed after Sir Geoffrey Jefferson (1886-1961), who was a British neurologist and pioneering neurosurgeon, and received his medical doctorate from the University of Manchester in 1909. He had prolific career as a pioneering neurosurgeon in Manchester throughout the 1920s-30s culminating in performing the first surgical embolectomy in England in 1925 and becoming the first professor of neurosurgery at the University of Manchester in 1939. He published the description of his eponymous injuries in 1920 describing a series of four cases of similar injuries. Side note: He was also an advocate for advancements in surgical science and gave a ground-breaking lecture at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1949 entitled “The Mind of the Mechanical Man”, where he discussed one of the earliest electronic computers at Manchester and laid the foundation for the debate on artificial intelligence.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Sir Geoffrey Jefferson 1886-1961. JNS. 1961;18(3):407-408. [article]
  7. Jefferson G. Fracture of the atlas vertebra. Report of four cases, and a review of those previously recorded. BJS. 1919;7(27):407-422. [article]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Klein’s Lines

Other Known AliasesLine of Klein

DefinitionVirtual line drawn parallel from the femoral neck that should intersect the lateral upper edge of the femoral head

Clinical Significance Used in the radiographical diagnosis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis and allows for early diagnosis and surgical management to prevent avascular necrosis as an adult. The sensitivity and specificity are the highest if modified by a ≥2mm difference in the epiphyseal width lateral to Klein’s line compared to the unaffected side.

HistoryNamed after Armin Klein (1892-1954), who was an American orthopaedic surgeon and received his medical doctorate from Harvard Medical School in 1927. He completed his residency at Boston City Hospital and upon completion joined the faculty at Massachusetts General Hospital. It was here in 1952 that Klein and three colleagues published a case series on children with previously undiagnosed SCFE, but with positive findings using his technique. He would later go on to become Chief of Orthopaedic Surgery at the new Beth Israel Hospital in Boston and obtained teaching positions at Harvard Medical School and Tufts College Medical School.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. KLEIN A, JOPLIN RJ, REIDY JA, HANELIN J. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis; early diagnosis and treatment facilitated by normal roentgenograms. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. 1952; 34-A(1):233-9. [pubmed]
  7. https://journals.lww.com/jbjsjournal/Citation/1954/36040/ARMIN_KLEIN_1892_1954.29.aspx