Ep-PAINE-nym



Korotkoff Sounds

Other known aliasesnone

Definitionsounds heard during auscultation of the brachial artery during blood pressure measurements

Clinical Significancethese sounds are generated as the sphygmomanometer cuff is slowly being deflated to the point that the maximal impulse of the pressure wave is more than cuff, but the cuff still occluded the artery at the nadir of the impulse. This pressure difference produces turbulence in the blood flow and the characteristic sound on auscultation. There are five phases to the Korotkov sounds with the initiation of Phase 1 as the systolic pressure and the end of Phase 4 as the diastolic pressure.

Historynamed after Nicholai Korotkov (1874-1920), who was a Russian surgeon and earned his medical degree from Moscow University in 1895. He had a prestigious career as a military physician and surgeon earning him an appointment as professor of surgery at the Military Medical Academy at St. Petersberg in 1903. He was preparing his doctoral thesis on vascular surgery when he described his now famous technique for measuring blood pressure in only a 281 word excerpt from a presentation to the Imperial Military Medical Academy entitled “Izvestie Imp. Voiennomedicinskoi Akademii” in 1905.

Nicolai Korotkov
Korotkov’s personal sphygmomanomter

References

  • Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  • Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  • Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  • Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  • Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  • Shevchenko YL, Tsitlik JE. 90th Anniversary of the development by Nikolai S. Korotkoff of the auscultatory method of measuring blood pressure. Circulation. 1996; 94(2):116-8. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Bundle of Kent

Other known aliases atrioventricular bypass tract

DefinitionAs discussed in the WPW eponym, the Bundle of Kent is an accessory conduction pathway between the atrium and ventricle on either the right or left side of the heart.

Clinical Significancethis pathway occurs in up to 0.3% of patients and the cause of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. It bypasses the traditional conduction system and allows for pre-excitation tachydysrthymias.

HistoryNamed after Albert Frank Stanley Kent (1863-1958), an English physiologist who received his degree in 1886 from the Magdalen College of Oxford. He first described lateral atrioventricular connections in a monkey heart in 1893 and erroneously believed these were part of the normal specialized conduction system. These findings generated a lot of controversy at the time and were actually rejected by several notable anatomists and physiologists. In fact, in 1955, Lev and Learner dissected 33 neonatal hearts and found no evidence of “normal” lateral conduction systems.


References

  • Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  • Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  • Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  • Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  • Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  • Kent AF. Researches on the Structure and Function of the Mammalian Heart. The Journal of physiology. 1893; 14(4-5):i2-254. [pubmed]
  • LEV M, LERNER R. The theory of Kent; a histologic study of the normal atrioventricular communications of the human heart. Circulation. 1955; 12(2):176-84. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

Other known aliasesventricular pre-excitation with arrhythmia, auriculoventricular accessory pathway syndrome

Definitionparoxysmal supraventricular tachycardia caused by conduction through an abnormal accessory bypass tract between the atria and ventricles known as the Bundle of Kent. There are two types depending on the side of the heart it effects; Type A is between the right atrium and ventricle and Type B is between the left atrium and ventricle.

Clinical SignificancePatients with WPW can numerous cardiac dysfunction symptoms including tachydysrhythmias, palpitations, dyspnea, presyncope, syncope, and sudden cardiac arrest. It is characterized by the triad of abnormalities on EKG of widened QRS, shortened PR interval, and slurring of the initial part of the QRS (called a delta wave).

HistoryNamed after Louis Wolff (1898-1972), Sir John Parkinson (1885-1976), and Paul Dudley White (1886-1973). Dr. Wolff was an American cardiologist who received his medical doctorate from Harvard Medical School in 1922. Dr. Parkinson was an English cardiologist who received his medical doctorate from University of Freiburg in 1910 and was also knighted by King George in 1948. Dr. White was an American cardiologist who received his medical doctorate from Harvard Medical School in 1911 and one of the founding presidents for the American Heart Association. He was a prominent advocate for preventive medicine receiving many national and international awards for his efforts to advance the importance of diet, exercise, and weight control in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. They collaborated to publish a series of 11 cases entitled “Bundle‐Branch Block with Short P‐R Interval in Healthy Young People Prone to Paroxysmal Tachycardia” in the American Heart Journal in 1930. It should be noted that Dr. Frank Norman Wilson and Dr. Alfred Wedd both described and published these findings in 1915 and 1921.


References

  • Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  • Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  • Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  • Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  • Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  • Wolff L, Parkinson J, White PD. Bundle‐Branch Block with Short P‐R Interval in Healthy Young People Prone to Paroxysmal Tachycardia. American Heart Journal. 1930;5(6):985-704 [article]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Langer’s Lines

Other known aliasesLanger’s lines of skin tension, cleavage lines

Definitiontopographical lines on the human body that correspond to the natural orientation of the collagen fibers of the dermis and are parallel to the orientation of the underlying muscle fibers

Clinical SignificanceIncisions made on the skin that run parallel with these lines produce much less tension on the wound, heal better with less scarring, and have a much better cosmetic appearance.  This is important in cosmetic surgery applications, as well as elective surgical procedures when you can select where to make your incision.

HistoryNamed after Karl Langer (1819-1887), an Austrian anatomist, who received his medical doctorate from the Universities of Vienna and Prague.  He worked under Joseph Hyrtl as a prosector for the University of Vienna and later becoming the director in 1874.  In his famous procedure discovering these tension lines, he punctured circular holes on the skin of cadavers and noticed that they would result in ellipisoidal wounds.  By following the direction of these ellipses, he was able to topographically map these lines on the entire body.  He did give credit to Baron Dupuytren as being the first to observe this phenomenon and published his findings in 1861 entitled “Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Haut. Über die Spaltbarkeit der Cutis”

Karl Langer

References

Ep-PAINE-nym



Dix-Hallpike Manuever

Other known aliasesNylen-Barany test

DefinitionStarting supine, the patient’s head is rotated to one side and then quickly lowered to supine with the neck extended over the exam table.  Patient is observed for nystagmus for 30 seconds and then returned to supine and observed for another 30 seconds.  This is then repeated for the other side.

Clinical SignificanceThe Dix-Hallpike maneuver is the diagnostic maneuver to induce vertigo and nystagmus in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo by relocating canaliths to the posterior semicircular canals.

HistoryNamed after Margaret Ruth Dix (1902-1991), a British neuro-otologist, and Charles Skinner Hallpike (1900-1979), an English otologist.  Dr. Dix earned her medical doctorate in 1937 from the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine and Dr. Hallpike earned his from the University of London in 1926.  Dr. Dix was training to become a surgeon when she was injured during the World War II air raids of London and suffered facial and ocular injuries which forced her to change her medical career path.  It was during this time she was hired by Dr. Hallpike to pursue the field of neuro-otology.  Their work resulted in a landmark series in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine and Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology.  It was this series in 1952 where one of the papers describing their eponymous finding  entitled “The Pathology, Symptomatology, and Diagnosis of Certain Common Disorders of the Vestibular System” was published.


References

  • Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  • Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  • Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  • Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  • Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  • DIX MR, HALLPIKE CS. The pathology symptomatology and diagnosis of certain common disorders of the vestibular system. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 1952; 45(6):341-54. [pubmed]
  • Margaret Ruth Dix – Royal College of Surgeons [link]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Epley Manuever

Other known aliasescanalith repositioning manuever

Definitionseries of positions and manual manipulations used to reposition free-floating otoconia in the semicircular canals of the inner ear

Clinical SignificanceThe Epley maneuver is used to treat benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) by relocating the otoconia back to the utricle where they can no longer stimulate the cupula of the semicircular canal and cause vertigo. 

HistoryNamed after John Epley, an American otolaryngologist from Portland, OR, who received his medical degree from the Oregon Health Sciences University and fellowship from Stanford Medical Center.  He pioneered the “canalith theory” of vestibular disease and published his eponymous maneuver in 1980 in the article entitled “New Dimensions of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo”.  Dr. Epley is still in practice today.


References

  • Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  • Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  • Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  • Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  • Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  • Epley JM. New dimensions of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngology and head and neck surgery. 1980;88(5):599-605. [pubmed]


Ep-PAINE-nym



Sphincter of Oddi

Other known aliaseshepatopancreatic sphincter, Glisson’s sphincter

Definitionmuscular ring surrounding the major duodenal papilla at the 2nd portion of the duodenum.

Clinical Significancethe sphincter of Oddi allows for drainage of the biliary and pancreatic systems and dysfunction (mainly spasming) can can cause pancreatitis.  It is in a constant state of contraction unless relaxed by cholesytokinin released by vasoactive intestinal peptide.  Opioids, specifically morphine, has been shown to increase the risk of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.

HistoryNamed after Ruggero Ferdinando Antonio Guiseppe Vincenzo Oddi (1864-1913), who was an Italian physiologist and anatomist from Perugia.  He spent is formative years studying medicine at Perugia, Bologna, and Florence and was appointed head of the Physiology Institute at the University of Genoa in 1894.  In 1887, at only 23 years old, he described his eponymous structure in his paper “D’une disposition a sphincter speciale de l’ouverture du canal choledoque”.  His career, unfortunately, was derailed and cut short due to opioid addiction many believe was as a result of using morphine derivatives to study dysfunction of the sphincter.


References

  • Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  • Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  • Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  • Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  • Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  • Helm JF, Venu RP, Geenen JE, et al. Effects of morphine on the human sphincter of Oddi. Gut. 1988; 29(10):1402-7. [pubmed]
  • Behar J.  Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Biliary Tract: the Gallbladder and Sphincter of Oddi – A Review.  ISRN Physiology, vol. 2013, Article ID 837630, 15 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/837630
  • Oddi R. D’une disposition a sphincter speciale de l’ouverture du canal choledoque. Arch Ital Biol. 1887;8:317–322
  • Loukas M, Spentzouris G, Tubbs RS, Kapos T, Curry B. Ruggero Ferdinando Antonio Guiseppe Vincenzo Oddi. World journal of surgery. 2007; 31(11):2260-5. [pubmed]