Ep-PAINE-nym



Graafian Follicle

 

Other Known Aliasestertiary vesicular follicle

 

Definition – Small fluid-filled sac in the ovary containing a maturing egg that develops after the first meiotic division has completed but before ovulation.

 

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Image result for graafian follicle

 

Clinical SignificanceThis follicle secretes estrogen and inhibin to aid in ovulation and promote implantation should fertilization occur by negatively feeding back to the pituitary to decrease LH and FSH.

 

History – Named after Regnier de Graaf (1641-1673), who was a Dutch physician and anatomist who made tremendous advancements in reproductive anatomy and physiology long before the invention of the microscope.  He published his findings in 1668 and 1672, which was received with controversy by some of his contemporaries since several before him noticed these follicles but failed to recognize their significance in reproduction.  The term Graafian follicle was given to him Albrecht von Haller who called it the ova Graafiana.

 

Reinier de Graaf 17e eeuw.jpg


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. De Graaf, R.  De Virorum Organis Generationi Inservientibus, de Clysteribus et de Usu Siphonis in Anatomia. 1668.
  6. Ankum WM, Houtzager HL, Bleker OP. Reinier De Graaf (1641-1673) and the fallopian tube. Human reproduction update. ; 2(4):365-9. [pubmed]
  7. Jay V. A portrait in history. The legacy of Reinier de Graaf. Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine. 2000; 124(8):1115-6. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Friedman’s Curve

 

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitiongraphical representation of an “ideal” labor course based on cervical dilation measurements and progression from the latent and active phase of stage 1 labor to the onset of stage 2 labor

Image result for friedman's curve

Clinical SignificanceThis was the first scientific and statistical representation of the progression of labor and allowed obstetricians to better assess laboring mothers.

History – Named after Emmanuel Friedman (1926-), who is an American obstetrician and received his medical doctorate from Columbia University’s College of Physician and Surgeons in 1951 after being drafted into the Navy during World War II.  His seminal paper published in 1954 entitled “The Graphical Analysis of Labor” was born from disappointment and frustration by not being allowed to leave his call post when his wife went into labor with their first child at another hospital.  Although it has been replaced by ACOG in 2016 as a reliable method for labor standards, it still stands a tremendous advancement in obstetrical medicine.

https://i1.wp.com/www.ajog.org/cms/attachment/2081664617/2072548585/fx1_lrg.jpg


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Romero R. A profile of Emanuel A. Friedman, MD, DMedSci. AJOG. 2016; 215(4):413-4. [pubmed]
  6. Friedman E. The graphic analysis of labor. AJOG. 1954; 68(6):1568-75. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Chadwick’s Sign

 

Other Known Aliasesnone

 

DefinitionBlue-red passive hyperemia of cervix that may appear after the 6th week of pregnancy

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Clinical SignificanceThis is one of the earliest physical exam findings of pregnancy and is a result of increased uterine blood flow to support the newly implanted embryo.

 

History – Named after James Reed Chadwick (1844-1905), who was an American gynecologist and received his medical doctorate from Harvard in 1871. He published in 1887 describing this finding, but gave due credit of the initial discovery to Étienne Joseph Jacquemin (1796-1872) who first noted it 1836.

He also help found the American Gynaecological Society and Boston Medical Library, and is also well known as being a noted librarian and scholar.  He was also a fervent advocate of women in the practice medicine and published extensively in support of this endeavor.

 


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Chadwick JR. The value of the bluish discoloration of the vaginal entrance as a sign of pregnancy. Transactions of the American Gynecological Society. 1877;11:399–418.
  6. Gleichert JE. Etienne Joseph Jacquemin, discoverer of ‘Chadwick’s sign’. Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences. 1971; 26(1):75-80. [pubmed]
  7. Chadwick JR.  The Study and Practice of Medicine by Women.  1879. [Link]
  8. Chadwick JR.  Admission of Women to the Massachusetts Medical Society. 1882. [Link]

Ep-PAIN-nym



May-Thurner Syndrome

 

Other Known Aliases – Illiac vein compression syndrome

Definition – Compression of the left common illiac vein by the right common illiac artery

Iliac veins.gif

Clinical Significance – This anatomic compression causes extensive deep venous thrombosis of the left lower extremity and is the cause of up to 5% of all spontaneous DVT occurrences.  It is more common in women (3x) and classically presents in the 2nd to 4th decade of life.  This should be considered in any patient with a spontaneous DVT and no other hypercoagulable causes. 

Image result for may-thurner syndrome

History – Named after May and Thurner in 1957 after they published their findings and built on the work of James McMurrich, who was an anatomist at the University of Michigan, and published his anatomic description of this phenomenon in 1908.  It was further defined clinically by Cockett and Thomas in 1965, but the eponym goes to May and Thurner.   There really is not a lot written about May and Turner and my internet detective skills did not turn up much on these physicians, so I apologize in advance for the paucity of personal information on these physicians that I usually try to provide on these posts.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. McMurrich JP. The occurrence of congenital ahhesions in the common iliac veins and their relations to thrombosis of the femoral and iliac veins.
    The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1908;135:342
  6. May R, Thurner J. The cause of the predominantly sinistral occurrence of thrombosis of the pelvic veins. Angiology. 1957; 8(5):419-27. [pubmed]
  7. Cockett FB, Thomas ML. The iliac compression syndrome. The British journal of surgery. 1965; 52(10):816-21. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Mobitz, Wenckebach, and Hay AV Blocks

 

Other Known AliasesSecond degree AV blocks

 

DefinitionSecond degree AV block refers to the inability of the P-wave to initiate a QRS complex.  In Type I (Wenckebach), there is progressive elongation of the PR interval until a beat is dropped.

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In Type II (Hay), there is no progressive elongation, but there are dropped beats.

Image result for mobitz type II

 

Clinical SignificanceMobitz Type I is generally considered a benign entity due to absence of structural changes on histology.  Mobitz Type II is concerning because it can progress to a complete heart block with sudden cardiac arrest.

 

History – Named after Woldemar Mobitz (1889-1951), who was a Russian-German physician and earned his doctorate of medicine in 1914 from the Universities of Freiburg and Munich.  He researched heart block extensively in the early 1900’s which culminated in his landmark paper in 1924, where he classified the two distinct types of second degree heart block. 

Woldemar Mobitz The Apical View The Journey Continues To the end of the

Woldemar Mobitz

 

Interestingly, these two types were already described by:

1) Karel Frederik Wenckebach (1864-1940), who was a Dutch physician and anatomist in Hague and recieved his medical doctorate from the University of Groningen.  He published his findings of a irregular pulses due to partial blockage of the AV conduction system causing progressive lengthening of conduction time in cardiac tissue in 1899.

Wenckebach1.jpg

2) John Hay (1873-1959), who was an English physician and received his medical doctorate from Victoria University of Manchester in 1901.  He first described what would become Type II AV block in 1905 in a 65yo man with a 2.5 year history of dyspnea on exertion.  Interestingly, he did this without the benefit of elctrocardiography.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Silverman ME, Upshaw CB, Lange HW. Woldemar Mobitz and His 1924 classification of second-degree atrioventricular block. Circulation. 2004; 110(9):1162-7. [pubmed]
  6. Mobitz W. Über die unvollständige Störung der Erregungsüberleitung zwischen Vorhof und Kammer des menschlichen Herzens. Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Experimentelle Medizin, Berlin 1924, 41: 180–23.
  7. Wenckebach KF. De Analyse van den onregelmatigen Pols. II. Over eenige Vormen van Allorhythmie en Bradycardie. Nederl Tijdschr Geneesk 1899;35:665.
  8. Hay J. Bradycardia and cardiac arrhythmia produced by depression of certain of the functions of the heart. The Lancet 1906, 1: 139–143
  9. Upshaw CB, Silverman ME.  John Hay: Discoverer of Type II Atrioventricular Block.  Clin Cardiol.  2000;23:869-871

Ep-PAINE-nym



Corrigan’s Pulse

 

Other Known AliasesWatson’s water hammer pulse

DefinitionRefers to a pulse that is bounding and forceful, but also rapidly collapsing, resembling a Victorian water hammer toy.

Clinical SignificanceThis abnormality is due to increased stroke volume of the left ventricle and decrease in the peripheral resistance seen with aortic regurgitation.  Corrigan’s pulse classically refers to bounding carotid arteries and Watson’s water hammer pulse refers to radial arteries.

History – The two namesake’s for these findings are:

Sir Dominic John Corrigan (1802-1880), who was an Irish physician, received his medical doctorate from University of Edinburgh in 1825.  He was best known for his work ethic and experiments to further the knowledge of the symptomatology of heart disease.  He was also the first 5 time president of the Irish College of Physicians.  He published his findings of this pulse in 1832.

Dominic John Corrigan2crop.jpg

 

Sir Thomas Watson (1792-1882), was a British physician, received his medical doctorate from Cambridge University in 1825 and was inducted into the Royal College of Physicians in 1826.  He served as president from 1862-1866.  He studied and followed Corrigan’s work on the carotid artery findings in aortic regurgitation and studied the peripheral manifestations, which he published in 1844.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Suvarna JC. Watson’s water hammer pulse. Journal of postgraduate medicine. 2008;54(2):163-5. [pubmed]
  6. Corrigan DJ. On permanent patency of the mouth of the aorta, or inadequacy of the aortic valves. The Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal. 1832;37: 225-245

Ep-PAINE-nym



Starr-Edwards Valve

 

Other Known Aliasescaged-ball artificial heart valve

DefinitionOne of the first types of artificial heart valves produced.  When the pressure in the ventricle of the heart exceeds the pressure outside the ventricle, the ball is pushed against the cage and blood flows in.  After contraction, the pressure inside the ventricle drops below the outside of the ventricle and the ball moves back against the base, forming the seal.

Clinical SignificanceThis type of valve was one of the first to have long-term survival and you may still encounter these valves today because they were just discontinued in 2007.  Due to the make-up of the valve, patients needed to have INR levels from 2.5-3.5 to prevent thrombosis.

History – Named after Albert Starr (1926-) and Lowell Edwards (1898-1982), who were both noted American cardiovascular surgeons.  It was an interesting partnership as Starr was 30 years junior to Edwards at their initial meeting, but both had a passion for valvular research and worked well together.  The 1st valve was placed in August of 1960 and they went on to replace mitral valves in 8 patients that year and published their results in 1961.  This paper was voted one of the top 100 manuscripts of the 20th century and revolutionized valve surgery.

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Edwards (Left) and Starr (Right)

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Starr (suit, middle)

scanned image of page 726


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Matthews AM.  The development of the Starr-Edwards heart valve.  Tex Heart Int J.  1998;25(4):282-293
  6. Starr-Edwards Heart Valve.  The National Museum of American History
  7. Starr A, Edwards ML. Mitral Replacement: Clinical Experience with a Ball-Valve Prosthesis. Starr A, Edwards ML. Ann Surg 1961; 154: 726-740.