Ep-PAINE-nym



Morgagni Hernia

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitionanterior or retrosternal congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Clinical SignificanceThis is a rare type of congenital diaphragmatic hernias seen in only 2% of cases. It occurs through the foramina of Morgagni immediately adjacent and posterior to the xiphoid process.

HistoryNamed after Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), who was an Italian anatomist and received his medical and philosophy doctorate from the University of Bologna in 1701 at the age of 19. He had a passion for studying anatomy and trained as a prosector for Antonio Valsalva at the Santa Maria della Morte hospital in Bologna. His reputation grew during this time and he was invited all over Europe to write about and teach anatomy. His greatest work would be “De Sedibus et causis morborum per anatomem indagatis” (Of the seats and causes of diseases investigated through anatomy”. This was a five book, two volume tome of his life’s work and is regarded as one of the founding works for modern pathological anatomy….if not one of the most fundamentally important works in the history of medicine.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Loukas M, El-Sedfy A, Tubbs RS, Gribben WB, Shoja MM, Cermakova A. Vincent Alexander Bochdalek (1801-1883). World journal of surgery. 2008; 32(10):2324-6. [pubmed]
  7. Bochdalek VA. Einige Betrachtungen über die Entstehung des angeborenen Zwerchfellbruches als Beitrag zur pathologischen Anatomie der Hernien. Vierteljahrschrift für die praktische Heilkunde. (Prag) 1848;19:89

Ep-PAINE-nym



Bochdalek Hernia

Other Known Aliasesnone

DefinitionPostero-lateral congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Clinical SignificanceThis type of congenital malformation can cause severe respiratory distress in a newborn as a result of compression on the lungs from herniated peritoneal contents. This is a surgical disease and infants are admitted to the NICU and supported via mechanical ventilation or ECMO until surgery can be planned.

HistoryNamed Vincent Bochdalek (1801-1883), who was a Bohemian anatomist and pathologist and received his medical doctorate from the University of Prague in 1833. He would later in his career return to his alma mater as a professor of anatomy for several decades where he earned is reputation as a prominent anatomist. He was a fervent advocate for establishing anatomy labs throughout Prague and was one of the founding physicians in the Prague School of Medicine. He was one of the pioneers in describing congenital diaphragmatic hernias in newborns and, unfortunately, there is little in the medical literature regarding him, but his eponym lives on. He published his extensive findings on his eponymous condition in 1848.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Loukas M, El-Sedfy A, Tubbs RS, Gribben WB, Shoja MM, Cermakova A. Vincent Alexander Bochdalek (1801-1883). World journal of surgery. 2008; 32(10):2324-6. [pubmed]
  7. Bochdalek VA. Einige Betrachtungen über die Entstehung des angeborenen Zwerchfellbruches als Beitrag zur pathologischen Anatomie der Hernien. Vierteljahrschrift für die praktische Heilkunde. (Prag) 1848;19:89

Ep-PAINE-nym



Fascia of Scarpa

Other Known Aliasesdeep fascia of abdominal wall, stratum membranosum

DefinitionThe membranous layer of the superficial abdominal fascia that is deep to the fascia of Camper and superficial to the external oblique muscle.

Clinical SignificanceThis is one of the classic nine abdominal layers you cut through when performing open abdominal procedures and is a favorite pimp question among general surgeons.

HistoryNamed after Antonio Scarpa (1752-1832), who was an Italian anatomist and professor and received his medical doctorate at the University of Padua at the age of 18. He held numerous professorships of anatomy throughout Italy. His Traité pratique des hernia of 1812 was the authoritative work on hernias and from which his eponym is derived. Unfortunately, his political views and ruthless nature as a nobleman tarnished his reputation (almost irrevocably) after his death from kidney stones in 1832. Statues were defaced and destroyed and, in an act of morbid homage, his head from removed from his cadaver and sent to the Institute of Anatomy in Bologna for exhibition. In fact, it is still on exhibition at the University History Museum in Pavia, Italy.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Fascia of Camper

Other Known Aliasessuperficial fascia of abdominal wall

DefinitionThe fatty outer layer of the superficial abdominal fascia and is continuous with the superficial fascia of the thigh.

Clinical SignificanceThis is one of the classic nine abdominal layers you cut through when performing open abdominal procedures and is a favorite pimp question among general surgeons.

HistoryNamed after Petrus Camper (1722-1789), who was a Dutch physician and anatomist, and received both a PhD and medical doctorate from the University of Leiden in 1746 at the age of 24. He spent many years as a traveling doctor throughout Europe. He subsequently held positions as professorships of surgery and philosophy at Franeker University and University of Amsterdam. He was a scholar and gentleman throughout his illustrious career and made tremendous strides in the fields of human and veterinary medicine, anthropology, and the arts.

Camper’s Anatomy Lesson (1758)

References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Billroth I and II Operation

Other Known Aliasesgastroduodenostomy and gastrojejunostomy

DefinitionIn a Billroth I procedure, the distal stomach is removed and the distal stomach is connected with a end-to-end anastomosis to the duodenum. In a Billroth II procedure, the distal stomach is removed and connected with a side-to-side anastomosis to the jejunum.

Clinical SignificanceBoth of these procedures are used in distal gastric pathologies, including gastric cancer, recurrent peptic ulcer disease, large duodenal perforations, bleeding gastric ulcer, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, or corrosive stricture of the stomach. A Billroth I is generally preferred as it has less complications and restores normal GI continuity. A Billroth II is used to prevent undue tension on the anastomosis secondary to scarring.

HistoryNamed after Christian Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894), who was an Austrian surgeon and generally regarded as the founding father of modern abdominal surgery. He received his medical doctorate from the Frederick William University of Berlin in 1852. His medical career was almost completely abandoned due to his love of music and was a close friend of Johannes Brahms. He became the Chair of Clinical Surgery at the University of Zurich in 1860. He was well known as a charismatic and infectious instructor, attracting students throughout Germany. It was at this post that he published is classic textbook Die allgemeine chirurgische Pathologie und Therapie (General Surgical Pathology and Therapy) in 1863. He was directly responsible for several landmark historical surgeries including:

  • 1872 – first to perform an esophagectomy
  • 1873 – first to perform an laryngectomy
  • 1876 – first to perform rectal cancer excision
  • 1881 – first to perform antrectomy for gastric cancer

Other notable mentions for Dr. Billroth is his early adoption of the “white coat” and surgical cleanliness. He also was an advocate for prolonged surgical apprenticeships following completion of medical studies and was the precursor to William Halsted’s pioneering residency program at Johns Hopkins


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Kazi RA, Peter RE. Christian Albert Theodor Billroth: master of surgery. Journal of postgraduate medicine. ; 50(1):82-3. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Pouch of Douglas

Other Known Aliasesrecto-uterine pouch

Definitionspace in the peritoneal cavity between the rectum and the posterior wall of the uterus

Clinical SignificanceAs this is the most posterior and inferior recess in the peritoneal cavity, it is a potential space for fluid and blood to accumulate. This area should always be investigated in trauma as part of the FAST examination.

HistoryNamed after James Douglas (1675-1742), who was a Scottish physician, anatomist, and physician extraordinaire to Queen Caroline. He received his medical doctorate from University of Reims and went on to have a prolific career as an obstetrician and anatomist. He also befriended an early career William Hunter and made him an assistant prior to his own fame as an anatomist. Due to his anatomic research in female pelvic anatomy, there are many eponymonic structures that bear his name including the Douglas fold, Douglas line, and Douglas septum.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Brock H. James Douglas of the Pouch. Medical history. 1974; 18(2):162-72. [pubmed]
  7. Rectouterine Pouch. Radiopaedia. https://radiopaedia.org/articles/rectouterine-pouch?lang=us

Ep-PAINE-nym



Münchausen Syndrome

Other Known Aliasesfactitious disorder imposed on self

Definitionintentional falsification of physical and/or mental signs and symptoms in oneself, or in another individual, for no obvious external gain or reward

Clinical SignificanceFalling under the factitious disorders section of the DSM-V 300.19 (ICD-10 – F68.10), patients deceptively misrepresent, simulate, or cause symptoms of an illness or injury in themselves, even in the absence of obvious external rewards such as financial gain, housing, or medications.

HistoryNamed after Hieronymus Karl Friedrich von Münchhausen (1720-1797), who was a German aristocrat and military veteran. He was best known for telling elaborate stories at aristocratic dinner parties where he would embellish his tales of being a soldier and huntsman. It was during these dinner parties that he met Rudolf Erich Raspe, who was a German writer, scientist, and con artist. He found these stories so alluring and entertaining that he used them (almost verbatim) in a series of publications describing these adventures of the titular character Baron von Munchausen. Münchhausen took offense to his noble name being used to entertain commoners and attempted litigious retribution against Raspe for many years to no avail. This story did not reach eponymous notoriety until 1951 when Dr. Richard Asher published an article in The Lancet entitled “Munchausen’s Syndrome” did the eponym stick.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. ASHER R. Munchausen’s syndrome. Lancet (London, England). 1951; 1(6650):339-41. [pubmed]