Ep-PAINE-nym



Tetralogy of Fallot

 

Other Known AliasesFallot’s tetrad, Fallot’s syndrome, Steno-Fallot tetralogy

DefinitionCongenital cyanotic heart disease due to ventriculo-septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, and overiding aorta.

Clinical Significance This is one of the six congenital cyanotic heart defects and is also the most common.  Read/listen to an amazing review of “Congenital Cyanotic Heart Diseases” here.

History – The classic description of the tetrad was actually first described in 1672 by the Danish physician and anatomist, Neils Stenson (1638-1686).  The namesake of this condition is Etienne-Louis Arthur Fallot (1850-1911), who was a French physician.  He described the tetrad in 1888 using previous observations and building from the work of Stenson, but garned little contemporary appraise.  It wasn’t until 1931 when Fallot’s work was rekindled and translated by Dr. Paul Dudley White.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com/. Accessed March 7, 2017.
  5. E. L. A. Fallot. Contribution à l’anatomie pathologique de la maladie bleue (cyanose cardiaque). Marseille médical, 1888;25: 77-93.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Reye’s Syndrome

 

Other Known AliasesReye’s sequence, Reye-Morgan-Baral syndrome, Reye-Johnson syndrome

Definition – Rare disease of acquired encephalopathy and fatty liver filtration in children under 15 years of age

Clinical Significance Classically, this condition follows a viral upper respiratory illness (influenza B, varicella) in children who were given aspirin for fever therapy.  Symptoms include vomiting, confusion, AMS, seizures, and LOC. Children under 5 years of age frequently have hyperglycemia as well.  Mortality is as high as 40% and many that survive are left with significant brain damage.

History – First described in 1929 by Dr. W.R. Brain, D. Hunter, and H.M. Turnbull, but not established as clinical diagnosis until published in The Lancet in 1963 by Dr. Ralph Douglass K. Reye, Dr. Graeme Morgan, and Dr. James Baral,.  Later that same year (1963), an outbreak of this condition occurred in North Carolina and was published by Dr. George Johnson.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com/. Accessed March 7, 2017.
  5. Brain, WR, Hunter, D, Turnbull, HM. Acute meningoencephalomyelitis of childhood: report of six cases. Lancet. 1929;1:221–227 [article]
  6. Reye RDK, Morgan G, Baral J. Encephalopathy and fatty degeneration of the viscera: A disease entity of childhood. Lancet. 1963; 2(7311):749-52. [pubmed]
  7. Johnson GM, Scurletis TD, Carroll NB. A study of sixteen fatal cases of encephalitis-like disease in North Carolina children. North Carolina medical journal. 1963; 24:464-73. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Hatchcock’s Sign

 

DefinitionUpward pressure applied to the angle of mandible produces pain with parotitis, but not with adenitis

Clinical Significance – This particular sign could be positive before any significant parotid gland swelling occurred and would aid in the early detection and diagnosis of mumps. 

History – First described by a Lieutenant Hatchcock in 1918.  Honestly, I can’t find much on this Lieutenant Hatchcock……


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Lincoln Evening Journal.  Lincoln, NE. 1918. https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/40559204/
  5. Practical Medicine Series.  General Medicine. Volume I.  1919. http://tinyurl.com/n3c4yqa

Ep-PAINE-nym



Aicardi Syndrome

DefinitionCongenital syndrome with three main features:

  1. Agenesis or dysgenesis of the corpus callosum
  2. Infantile spasms and/or epilepsy
  3. Chorioretinal lacunae

Clinical Significance Occurs almost exclusively in females and clinical findings can include:

  • Asymmetry of cerebrum
  • Ventricular cysts
  • Microcephaly
  • Severe developmental delay and disability
  • Ocular abnormalities (microphthalmia, colobomo)
  • Short philtrum with flat nose and upturned ears
  • Sparse eyebrows
  • Small hands
  • Spinal abnormalities

History – Named after Dr. Jean Fraçois Marie Aicardi, who is a French pediatrician, and first published and described this disorder in two girls in 1965.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com/
  5. J. Aicardi, J. Lefebvre, A. Lerique-Koechlin. A new syndrome: Spasm in flexion, callosal agenesis, ocular abnormalities. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. 1965;19:609-610.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Pemberton’s Sign


DefinitionRaising of the patient’s arms over their head (until the arms touch their face) causes flushing and congestion of head and neck due to venous congestion and thoracic inlet obstruction.

Image result for pemberton sign

Clinical Significance Indicates superior vena cava syndrome in patients with mediastinal mass

History – Ok…so I have conflicting sources on this one:

  1. Dr. Hugh Spear Pemberton (1890-1956) – English physician who first described it in a letter to The Lancet in 1946.
  2. Dr. John de J. Pemberton (1887-1967) – US surgeon who was a pioneer in thyroid surgery

 

You make the call:

Image result for english flag     or     Image result for us flag


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com/. Accessed March 7, 2017.
  5. De Filippis EA, Sabet A, Sun MR, Garber JR. Pemberton’s sign: explained nearly 70 years later. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2014;99(6):1949-54. [pubmed]
  6. Pemberton HS.  Sign of submerged goitre.  Lancet.  1946;248(6423):509.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Kahler’s Disease

 

Other Known AliasesMacIntyre Syndrome

DefinitionMultiple Myeloma

Clinical Significance None

History – Given to Dr. Otto Kahler (1849-1893), who was a Austrian physician and Professor of Medicine at the German University in Prague.  Although he is the namesake for this condition, William MacIntyre (1791-1857) first described multiple myeloma in 1850.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com/. Accessed March 7, 2017.
  5. Kahler O.  Zur Symptomatologie des multiplen Myeloms. Beobachtung von Albumosurie. Prager medicinische Wochenshrift, Prague, 1889, 14: 33-35, 44-49.
  6. Macintyre W. Case of Mollities and Fragilitas Ossium, accompanied with urine strongly charged with animal matter. Medico-chirurgical transactions. 33:211-32. 1850. [pubmed]
  7. Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV. Multiple myeloma. Blood. 2008;111(6):2962-2972 [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Heinz Bodies

 

Other Known AliasesHeinz-Ehrlich Bodies, Ehrlich Inner Body

DefinitionDeep purple small irregular bodies in red cells stained with crystal violet which represents denatured hemoglobin due to oxidative damage.

Image result for heinz bodies

Clinical SignificanceSeen in conditions in with high oxidative stress such as:

  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
  • Alpha thalassemia
  • NADPH deficiency
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Asplenia

History – Given to Dr. Robert Heinz (1865-1924), who was a German physician and pharmacologist who first reported these findings 1890 in the blood of guinea pigs that had treated with acetylphenylhydrazine.  Dr. Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915), was a German bacteriologist and immunologist, is also credited with this, but did not publish it formally (as best I can tell)


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com
  3. R. Heinz. Morphologische Veränderungen des roten Blutkörperchens durch Gifte. [Virchows] Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin, Berlin, 1890, 122: 112-116