Other Known Aliases – Autoimmune hyperthyroidism
Definition – Hyperthyrodism caused by antibodies that stimulate T3/T4 secretion. The most common antibodies are thyroid-secreting hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb).
Clinical Significance – Classic clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism include thyromegaly, ophthalmaopathy, resting tremor, palpitations, weight loss, heat intolerance. For more in depth analysis of hyperthyroidism, see my 2017 talk at ASPA here.
History – Named after Robert James Graves (1796-1853), who was an prolific Irish physician, surgeon, and educator. He was named Regius professor of the Institute of Medicine in Trinity College, founded the Dublin Journal of Medical and Chemical Sciences, and was a an early adopter of clinical bedside rounding and teaching with medical students. Dr. Graves wrote a routine clinical lecture series in the London Medical and Surgical Journal and first described a young female patient with ophthalmopathy and goiter in 1835. Dr. Armand Trousseau then published the collection of these articles in 1864 entitled “Clinical Lectures on the Practice of Medicine” and gave him this eponym. Another contribution of Dr. Graves was the creation of the second hand on watches to time pulses and the practice of providing food and water with patients with a fever, instead of the common practice of withholding nourishment.
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- Graves RJ. Newly Observed Affection of the Thyroid Gland. London Medical and Surgical Journal. 1835. Vol.7. Part 2. 512
- Graves RJ, Trousseau A. Clinical Lectures on the Practice of Medicine. 1864. Dublin.
Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves’ Disease. The New England journal of medicine
. 2016; 375(16):1552-1565. [pubmed
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is created and stored in the parathyroid glands and is mainly secreted in response to low serum ionized calcium levels.
PTH increases serum calcium by 3 main mechanisms:
- Skeletal Actions
- 2 phases
- Mobilize calcium from skeletal stores that are immediately accessible
- Increase osteoclastic activity
- Renal Actions
- 3 phases
- Increases reabsorption of calcium
- Mainly passively in proximal tubule
- Can also be actively transported in the cortical thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubules
- Inhibits reabsorption of phosphate
- Occurs in the proximal tubule
- Synthesis of calcitriol
- Stimulates synthesis of 1-alpha hydroxylase to convert calcidiol to calcitriol
- Intestinal Actions
- Increases the intestinal absorption of calcium by calcitriol
Causes of Parathyroid Dysfunction
- Hyperfunctioning adenomas (94%)
- Primarily parathyroid chief cells
- Glandular hyperplasia (5%)
- Carcinoma (1%)
- Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH)
- Autosomal dominant defect in calcium-sensing receptor
- Chronic renal disease, malabsorption syndromes
- Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome
- Calcium-sensor receptor antibodies
- Abnormal development
- Mutations in calcium-sensing receptor
Signs and Symptoms of Parathyroid Dysfunction
- Nephrolithiasis (up to 20%)
- Renal insufficiency
- Decreased bone mineral density
- “Abdominal groans”
- Nausea, vomiting, anorexia
- Peptic ulcer disease
- “Porcelain Thrones”
- “Psychiatric moans”
- Depression, psychosis, delirium
- “Fatigue overtones”
- Due to hypocalcemia postsurgery
- Perioral numbness, paraesthesias, muscle cramps, tetany, Chvostek’s sign, Trousseau’s sign
- Basal ganglia calcifications
- Can cause parkinsonism, dystonia, dementia
- Dental abnormalities (congenital)
- Dental hypoplasia, defective enamel
- Dry, puffy skin
- Coarse, brittle, and sparse hair
- Brittle nails
4 main laboratory studies to help differentiate the different causes of parathyroid dysfunction:
- Serum PTH
- Serum calcium
- 24-hour urinary calcium
- Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D
- Acute (postsurgical)
- 10mL ampule of 10% calcium gluconate in 50mL of D5W over 10-20 minutes followed by a calcium gluconate infusion
- Weaned after calcium ≥ 7.5mg/dL and asymptomatic
- Oral calcitriol (0.5 mcg BID) and calcium carbonate (0.5-2g BID)
- Oral calcium carbonate or citrate 1000-2000 mg/day
- Oral calcitriol 0.5-2 mcg/day
- Recombinant human PTH can be used to decrease calcium and vitamin D dosing if patients develop side effects
- Surgical Indications (any of these with laboratory findings):
- Age < 50
- Serum calcium ≥ 1mg/dL above upper limit of normal
- DXA T-score ≤ -2.5
- Vertebral fracture
- Creatinine clearance < 60 mL/min
- 24-hour urine calcium ≥ 400 mg/day
- Presence of nephrolithiasis
- Preoperative Imaging (Review of parathyroid imaging here)
- Sestamibi-single photon emission computed tomography (MIBI-SPECT)
- Allows for visualization of adenoma, hyperactive glands, or ectopic glands prior to surgery
- Sensitivity – 70-81%, PPV – 91-95%
- Bilateral neck exploration
- Inhibits bone resorption and improves bone mass
- Activate calcium-sensing receptors in the parathyroid gland, which decrease PTH secretion
- Vitamin D
- Phosphate binders
- Vitamin D supplementation
- Potts JT, Juppner H. Parathyroid hormone: Molecular biology and regulation. In: Principles of Bone Biology, Bilezikian JP, Raisz LG, Rodan GA (Eds), Academic Press, San Diego 1996. p.325.
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- Stein R, Godel V. Hypocalcemic cataract. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1980;17(3):159-61. [pubmed]
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- Bilezikian JP, Brandi ML, Eastell R. Guidelines for the management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: summary statement from the Fourth International Workshop. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2014;99(10):3561-9. [pubmed]
- Eslamy HK, Ziessman HA. Parathyroid sctinigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: 99mTc sestamibi SPECT and SPECT/CT. Radiographics. 2088;28:1461-1476.
What are the indications for high-intensity statin therapy for hyperlipidemia?
New joint guidelines were released in 2013 by ACC/AHA on the management of hyperlipidemia. In these guidelines, there are 3 criteria for high intensity statin therapy:
- Age < 75 years with a clinical Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD):
- Acute coronary syndrome
- Myocardial infarction
- Stable or unstable angina
- Revascularization procedures
- Cerebrovascular disease
- Peripheral arterial disease
- LDL ≥ 190 mg/dL
- Age 40-75 years, with diabetes, LDL 70-189 mg/dL, and 10-year ASCVD risk > 7.5%
2013 ACC/AHA Hyperlipidemia Guidelines
What are the drugs and dosing for high-intensity statin therapy?
There are only 2 medications that have been studied that are recommended for high-intensity statin therapy:
- Atorvastatin 40-80mg daily
- Rosuvastatin 20-40mg daily
2013 ACC/AHA Hyperlipidemia Guidelines
Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology
. 63(25 Pt B):2889-934. 2014. [pubmed
This week’s PAINE Pearl revolves around hyperlipidemia management.
- What are the indications for high-intensity statin therapy?
- What are the drugs and dosing for high-intensity statin therapy?