Ep-PAINE-nym



Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

 

Other Known Aliasesnone

 

Definition – Type of lymphoma predominantly from lymphocytes that arise from germinal center or post-germinal center of B cells

 

Clinical SignificanceAccounts for 10% of all lymphomas and 0.6% of all cancers.  It is also associated with a bimodal age distribution of young adults (20s) and older adults (60s), with a slight male predominance.  Epstein-Barr virus is the most common causative agent and it carries a favorable prognosis.

 

History – Named after Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866), who was British physician and considered one of the most prominent pathologists of his time.  He was also a perpetual student constantly learning new techniques including being an early adopter of the stethoscope anda fervent advocate for preventative medicine.  He first described his findings on his eponymous disease in 1832, but it wasn’t until 33 years later when another British physician, Samuel Wilks, “re-discovered” the disease and Hodgkin’s work did it gain any traction and recognition.

 

Thomas Hodgkin photo.jpg

 


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Hodgkin Lymphome.  British Medical Journal – Best Practice. http://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-us/311
  6. Hodgkin T.  On Some Morbid Appearances of The Absorbent Glands and Spleen.  Med Chir Trans.  1832;17:68-114.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Auer Rods

 

Other Known Aliasesnone

 

Definition – Auer rods are azurophilic granules found in the cytoplasm of leukemic blast cells and are composed of fused lyosomes.

 

Image result for auer rods

 

Clinical SignificanceThese are found in high grade myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative syndromes and are pathognomonic for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).

 

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History – Named after John Auer (1875-1948), an American physiologist and pharmacologist, who held appointments at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, and the St. Louis School of Medicine. He first described these structures in a 21yo male who was suffering from a sore throat and nosebleed and admitted to Sir William Osler’s service for work-up.  He published this finding in 1906, but were first described by a colleague of his at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Thomas McCrae.  Interestingly, they both erroneously thought that the cells containing these structures were lymphoblasts, not myeloblasts.

 

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References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Gordon SW, Krystal GW. Auer Rods. NEJM. 2017; 376(21):2065. [pubmed]
  6. Auer J. Some hitherto Undescribed Structures Found in the Large Lymphocytes of a Case of Acute Leukemia. AJMS. 1906;131(6):1002-1014 [article]
  7. McCrae T. Acute Lymphatic Leukemia, with Report of Five Cases. BMJ. 1905; 1(2304):404-8. [pubmed]
  8. John Auer. http://www.iqb.es/historiamedicina/personas/auer.htm

Ep-PAINE-nym



von Willebrand Disease

 

Other Known Aliaseshereditary pseudohemophilia

DefinitionAutosomal dominant, hereditary clotting disorder arising from a deficiency in the quantity and/or quality of von Willebrand factor (vWF), which is a protein required for protein adhesion and involved in primary hemostasis.  The genetic defect responsible for vWF production the vWF gene located on the short arm p of chromosome 12 (12p13.2).

Image result for von willebrand factor

 

Clinical SignificanceThis is the most common type of hereditary blood-clotting disorder in humans, with 3 main hereditary types and multiple subtypes.  Type 1 is the most common and often asymptomatic, Type 2 can have mild to moderate symptoms, Type 3 is the most severe and can manifest with hemarthosis and internal bleeding. 

History – Named after Erik Adolf von Willebrand (1870-1949), a Finnish physician graduating from the University of Helsinki 1896, and who took a special interest in hematology and coagulation.  In 1924, a 5yo girl was brought to him due to a bleeding disorder and he successfully performed a family history map on the girl’s 66 living family members and discovered the autosomal dominant pattern.  He published his findings in 1926 in Swedish calling it “pseudo-hemophilia”, but it wasn’t until 1931 (when it was translated into German) did it gain any traction in the medical community.

 

 


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Von Willebrand EA. Hereditary pseudohaemophilia. Haemophilia. 1999; 5(3):223-31. [translation of original paper] [pubmed]
  6. Leebeek FW, Eikenboom JC. Von Willebrand’s Disease. NEJM. 2016; 375(21):2067-2080. [pubmed]
  7. Nilsson IM. Commentary to Erik von Willebrand’s original paper from 1926 ‘Hereditär pseudohemofili’. Haemophilia. 1999; 5(3):220-1. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Hunter’s Ligament

 

Other Known Aliasesround ligament of the uterus, ligamentum teres uteri

 

Definition – These are the lateral attachments of the uterus that originate at the uterine horns and extend out immediately below and in front of the fallopian tubes.  They also cross the external lliac vessels before entering the inguinal canal.

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Clinical SignificanceThis ligament maintains uterine anteversion during pregnancy and can cause pain as they stretch

 

History – Named after William Hunter (1718-1783), who was a Scottish anatomist and obstetrician, and was the younger brother of John Hunter (an even more famous anatomist).  He studied extensively on anatomy, with particular interests in obstetrical anatomy, and was also appointed as the chief physician to Queen Charlotte in 1764.  His namesake ligaments come from his posthumously published textbook An Anatomical Description of the Human Gravid Uterus in 1794.

 

William Hunter (anatomist).jpg


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Hunter W.  An Anatomic Description of the Human Gravid Uterus.  1794. London

Ep-PAINE-nym



Graafian Follicle

 

Other Known Aliasestertiary vesicular follicle

 

Definition – Small fluid-filled sac in the ovary containing a maturing egg that develops after the first meiotic division has completed but before ovulation.

 

Image result for graafian follicle

Image result for graafian follicle

 

Clinical SignificanceThis follicle secretes estrogen and inhibin to aid in ovulation and promote implantation should fertilization occur by negatively feeding back to the pituitary to decrease LH and FSH.

 

History – Named after Regnier de Graaf (1641-1673), who was a Dutch physician and anatomist who made tremendous advancements in reproductive anatomy and physiology long before the invention of the microscope.  He published his findings in 1668 and 1672, which was received with controversy by some of his contemporaries since several before him noticed these follicles but failed to recognize their significance in reproduction.  The term Graafian follicle was given to him Albrecht von Haller who called it the ova Graafiana.

 

Reinier de Graaf 17e eeuw.jpg


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. De Graaf, R.  De Virorum Organis Generationi Inservientibus, de Clysteribus et de Usu Siphonis in Anatomia. 1668.
  6. Ankum WM, Houtzager HL, Bleker OP. Reinier De Graaf (1641-1673) and the fallopian tube. Human reproduction update. ; 2(4):365-9. [pubmed]
  7. Jay V. A portrait in history. The legacy of Reinier de Graaf. Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine. 2000; 124(8):1115-6. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Friedman’s Curve

 

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitiongraphical representation of an “ideal” labor course based on cervical dilation measurements and progression from the latent and active phase of stage 1 labor to the onset of stage 2 labor

Image result for friedman's curve

Clinical SignificanceThis was the first scientific and statistical representation of the progression of labor and allowed obstetricians to better assess laboring mothers.

History – Named after Emmanuel Friedman (1926-), who is an American obstetrician and received his medical doctorate from Columbia University’s College of Physician and Surgeons in 1951 after being drafted into the Navy during World War II.  His seminal paper published in 1954 entitled “The Graphical Analysis of Labor” was born from disappointment and frustration by not being allowed to leave his call post when his wife went into labor with their first child at another hospital.  Although it has been replaced by ACOG in 2016 as a reliable method for labor standards, it still stands a tremendous advancement in obstetrical medicine.

https://i2.wp.com/www.ajog.org/cms/attachment/2081664617/2072548585/fx1_lrg.jpg


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Romero R. A profile of Emanuel A. Friedman, MD, DMedSci. AJOG. 2016; 215(4):413-4. [pubmed]
  6. Friedman E. The graphic analysis of labor. AJOG. 1954; 68(6):1568-75. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Chadwick’s Sign

 

Other Known Aliasesnone

 

DefinitionBlue-red passive hyperemia of cervix that may appear after the 6th week of pregnancy

Related image

 

Clinical SignificanceThis is one of the earliest physical exam findings of pregnancy and is a result of increased uterine blood flow to support the newly implanted embryo.

 

History – Named after James Reed Chadwick (1844-1905), who was an American gynecologist and received his medical doctorate from Harvard in 1871. He published in 1887 describing this finding, but gave due credit of the initial discovery to Étienne Joseph Jacquemin (1796-1872) who first noted it 1836.

He also help found the American Gynaecological Society and Boston Medical Library, and is also well known as being a noted librarian and scholar.  He was also a fervent advocate of women in the practice medicine and published extensively in support of this endeavor.

 


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Chadwick JR. The value of the bluish discoloration of the vaginal entrance as a sign of pregnancy. Transactions of the American Gynecological Society. 1877;11:399–418.
  6. Gleichert JE. Etienne Joseph Jacquemin, discoverer of ‘Chadwick’s sign’. Journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences. 1971; 26(1):75-80. [pubmed]
  7. Chadwick JR.  The Study and Practice of Medicine by Women.  1879. [Link]
  8. Chadwick JR.  Admission of Women to the Massachusetts Medical Society. 1882. [Link]