Ep-PAINE-nym



Korsakoff Syndrome

Other Known Aliases none

Definition – chronic, irreversible amnestic disorder caused by thiamine deficiency classically associated with longstanding alcohol use

Clinical Significance there are seven major symptoms of Korsakoff syndrome that can be seen clinically:

  1. Anterograde amnesia
  2. Retrograde amnesia
  3. Amnesia of fixation
  4. Confabulation
  5. Minimal content in conversation
  6. Lack of insight
  7. Apathy

This is classically taught as a continuation of Wernicke’s encephalopathy, though patients may not present in early stages.

HistoryNamed after Sergei Sergeievich Korsakoff (1854-1900), who was a Russian neuropsychiatrist and received his medical doctorate from Moscow State University in 1875. He would go on to gain fame in fields of neurology and psychiatry culminating in his appointment as professor extraordinarius at a dedicated psychiatric hospital in Moscow and helping to found the Moscow Society of Neuropathologists and Psychiatrists. His eponymous condition was first described in 1887 in his graduate thesis entitled “Alcoholic Paralysis”


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Kessels RP – Korsakoff Syndrome. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. [link]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Tourette Syndrome

Other Known Aliases Brissaud’s Disease

Definitionneurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor and vocal tic with onset during childhood

Clinical Significance the exact cause is still largely unknown, but likely results from a disturbance in the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (mesolimbic) circuit, which leads to disinhibition of the motor and limbic system. There are no specific tests to confirm and is a clinical diagnosis. The severity of the tics largely decreases, and in some instances disappears, in adolescence and adulthood.

HistoryNamed after Georges Gilles de la Tourette (1857-1904), a French neurologist who recieved his medical doctorate from University of Poitiers at the age of 16. He subsequently moved to Paris to train at the famous Laennec Hospital and Salpêtrière Hospital under Jean Martin Charcot. Under the tutelage of Charcot, he made tremendous strides in the area of psychotherapy, hysteria, psychology, and neurology and described his eponymous condition in a nine patient case series in 1884. In a rather cruel twist of fate, he was shot in the neck by a patient he had treated with hypnotism in 1893, fell into a deep depression, committed to a psychiatric hospital due to tertiary neurosyphilis, and died there in 1904.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Klumpke’s Palsy

Other Known Aliases none

Definitionparalysis of the upper extremity from a lower trunk injury classically effecting C8-T1.

Clinical Significance this brachial plexopathy can be infants as a result of birth trauma from pulling on an extending arm or in older children/adults from hanging from an outstretched arm. The classic manifestations are paralysis of the intrinsic hand muscles, fixed and flexed wrist and finger flexors, and sensory numbness of the C8/T1 dermatome leading to the textbook “claw hand” deformity.

HistoryNamed after Augusta Déjerine-Klumpke (1859-1927), an American-born French physician who received her medical doctorate from the University of Paris in 1889 after becoming the first woman to be appointed interne des hôpitaux. She would immediately make a reputation for herself by being able to speak three languages and took an interest in neuroanatomy and physiology. She would meet fellow physician and future husband, Jules Dejerine, during her studies in medical school and the two would study and publish extensively together in the realm of neurology including the classic two-volume textbook on the anatomy of the nerve centers entitled “Anatomie des Centres Nerveux”. She would describe her eponymous condition in her 1885 case review of 18 patients taken from the available medical literature and would win her the Godard prize in 1886.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Yildirim FB, Sarikcioglu L. Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke (1859-1927) and her eponym. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008; 79(1):102. [pubmed]
  7. Shoja MM, Tubbs RS. Augusta Déjerine-Klumpke: the first female neuroanatomist. Clin Anat. 2007; 20(6):585-7. [pubmed]
  8. Déjerine, JJ, Déjerine-Klumpke, A. Anatomie des Centres Nerveux. 1895. [link]
  9. Déjerine-Klumpke, A. Contribution à l’étude des paralysies radiculaires du plexus brachial. Paralysies radiculaires totales. Paralysies radiculaires inférieures. De la participation des filets sympathiques oculo-pupillaires dans ces paralysies. Revue de médecine 1885, 5: 591-616, 739-90.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Erb’s Palsy

Other Known Aliases none

Definitionparalysis of the upper extremity from an upper trunk injury classically effecting C5-C6.

Clinical Significance this brachial plexopathy is most commonly associated with birth trauma from a shoulder dystocia and depending on the severity of the injury, can resolve on its own or be permanent. The arm is classically internally rotated, with an extended and pronated forearm referred to as the “waiter’s tip” or “porter’s tip” sign.

HistoryNamed after Wilhelm Heinrich Erb (1840-1921), a German neurologist who received his medical doctorate from the the University of Heidelberg in 1864. He would spend his early career assisting Nikolaus Friedreich and Ludwig von Buhl in Munich, before becoming chair of the pathology department at the University of Leipzig in 1880, and ultimately succeeding Friedreich in 1883. He is credited with popularizing the reflex hammer use in neurologic examinations and would be instrumental in identifying and describing myasthenia gravis, tabes dorsalis, and his eponymous point in the brachial plexus where this injury arises. Of note, he is also credited with the cardiac auscultation point where the S2 is best heard.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Sarikcioglu L, Arican RY. Wilhelm Heinrich Erb (1840-1921) and his contributions to neuroscience. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007; 78(7):732. [PDF]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Pemberton Sign

Other Known Aliases none

DefinitionRaising of the patient’s arms over their head (until the arms touch their face) causes flushing and congestion of head and neck due to venous congestion and thoracic inlet obstruction.

Clinical Significance this is a simple physical examination maneuver to diagnose a patient with superior vena cava syndrome and pressure on the thoracic inlet. A positive sign is flushing and cyanosis of the head and neck with possible respiratory distress with prolonged holding and is associated with mediastinal masses, goiters, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

HistoryNamed after Hugh Spear Pemberton (1890-1956), who was an English physician and recieved his medical doctorate from the University of Liverpool in 1913. He would subsequently serve as a physician in the Royal Medical Corp during World War I and returned to Liverpool at the David Lewis Northern Hospital where he would spend his entire career. He founded one of the first diabetic clinics there in 1922 and made a name for himself in he area of endocrinology and receiving Fellowship in the Royal College of Physicians in 1941. It was in 1946 that he published a very short letter to the Lancet describing his eponymous maneuver.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Pemberton HS. SIGN OF SUBMERGED GOITRE The Lancet. 1946; 248(6423):509 [link]
  7. De Filippis EA, Sabet A, Sun MRM, Garber JR. Pemberton’s Sign: Explained Nearly 70 Years Later . 2014; 99(6):1949-1954 [link]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Heinz Bodies

Other Known Aliases Heinz-Ehrlich bodies, Ehrlich Inner Body

DefinitionDeep purple small irregular bodies in red cells stained with crystal violet which represents denatured hemoglobin due to oxidative damage.

Clinical Significance Seen in conditions with high oxidative stress such as G6PD deficiency, alpha thalassemia, NADPH deficiency, chronic liver disease, and asplenia.

HistoryNamed after Robert Heinz (1865-1924), a German physician and pharmcologist who recieved his medical doctorate from the University of Breslau in 1888. He would work in the university chemical laboratory in Jena and Munich throughout his career studying pathology, inflammation, degeneration, and regeneration of blood. It was during this time, specifically in 1890, that he published a study on the blood of guinea pigs treated with acetylphenylhydrazine to intoduce oxidative inflammation and identified his eponymous cellular structure. Of note, Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) is also regionally credited with identifying this structure but did not formally publish his findings.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. R. Heinz. Morphologische Veränderungen des roten Blutkörperchens durch Gifte. [Virchows] Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin, Berlin, 1890, 122: 112-116

Ep-PAINE-nym



von Willebrand Disease

Other Known Aliases hereditary pseudohemophilia

DefinitionAutosomal dominant, hereditary clotting disorder arising from a deficiency in the quantity and/or quality of von Willebrand factor (vWF), which is a protein required for platelet adhesion and involved in primary hemostasis.  The genetic defect responsible for vWF production the vWF gene located on the short arm of chromosome 12 (12p13.2)

Clinical Significance This is the most common type of hereditary blood-clotting disorder in humans, with 3 main hereditary types and multiple subtypes.  Type 1 is the most common and often asymptomatic, Type 2 can have mild to moderate symptoms, Type 3 is the most severe and can manifest with hemarthosis and internal bleeding.

HistoryNamed after Erik Adolf von Willebrand (1870-1949), a Finnish physician who received his medical doctorate from the University of Helsinki 1896, and who took a special interest in hematology and coagulation.  In 1924, a 5yo girl was brought to him due to a bleeding disorder and he successfully performed a family history map on the girl’s 66 living family members and discovered the autosomal dominant pattern.  He published his findings in 1926 in Swedish calling it “pseudo-hemophilia”, but it wasn’t until 1931 (when it was translated into German) did it gain any traction in the medical community.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Von Willebrand EA. Hereditary pseudohaemophilia. Haemophilia. 1999; 5(3):223-31. [translation of original paper] [pubmed]
  7. Leebeek FW, Eikenboom JC. Von Willebrand’s Disease. NEJM. 2016; 375(21):2067-2080. [pubmed]
  8. Nilsson IM. Commentary to Erik von Willebrand’s original paper from 1926 ‘Hereditär pseudohemofili’. Haemophilia. 1999; 5(3):220-1. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Sampson’s Artery

Other Known Aliases artery of the round ligament of the uterus

Definitionbranch of the inferior epigastric artery that runs under and supplies the round ligament of the uterus

Clinical Significance this artery constitutes an anastomosis of the uterine and ovarian artery and is generally considered an physiologically insignificant artery dissected during hysterectomies. However, if accidentally severed or damaged, can lead to hemoperitoneum and need for re-operation.

HistoryNamed after John Albertson Sampson (1873-1946), an American gynecologist who received his medical doctorate from Johns Hopkins University in 1899. He would spend the majority of his career at the Albany Hospital in New York and was a pioneer in the research of endometriosis, first introducing and coining the term for this condition in 1921. He would also be the first to describe the implantation areas of endometriosis as “chocolate cysts”. It was during his time at Johns Hopkins that he took a keen interest in oncology and extensively studied the lymphatic drainage and vascular supply of the pelvis, where he was later credited with his eponymous artery of the round ligament of the uterus.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Sampson J.A. Perforating hemorrhagic (chocolate) cysts of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1921;2:526–528. [Google Scholar]
  7. Sampson J.A. Peritoneal endometriosis due to the menstrual dissemination of endometrial tissue into the peritoneal cavity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1927;14:422–469. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  8. Wong JW. Sampson’s Artery Revisited RMGO. 2017; 2:1-2. [link]

Ep-PAINE-nym



McRoberts Manuever

Other Known Aliases none

Definitionforced hyperflexion of the hips with applied suprapubic pressure during vaginal delivery

Clinical Significance this is the primary maneuver to attempt to help relieve a shoulder dystocia during vaginal deliveries. Due to the hypermobilty of sacroilliac joint during pregnancy, this allows for rotation of the pelvis and facilitates releasing the stuck shoulder. It has been shown to have a success of close to 90%.

HistoryNamed after William McRoberts, Jr. (1914-2006), an American obstetrician who recieved his medical doctorate from the University of Pittsburgh in 1940. He would go on to have a modest career in obstetrics culminating in Professor and Chief of Obstetrics at the University of Texas Medical School and Hermann Memorial Hospital in Dallas, TX. It was here where he his reputation as a teacher flourished and where he taught his eponymous maneuver for shoulder dystocia for over 40 years. As a testament to his teaching and a gift on retirement in 1982, two of his residents published an article naming this maneuver after their teacher and mentor.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Gonik B, Stringer CA, Held B. An alternate maneuver for management of shoulder dystocia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1983; 145(7):882-4. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Zavanelli Manuever

Other Known Aliases cephalic replacement, Gunn-Zavenelli-O’Leary Manuever

Definitionreplacement of the fetal head back into the uterus followed by immediate cesarean delivery

Clinical Significance this is a controversial, last resort maneuver to a shoulder dystocia and involves rotating the head back to an occiput anterior position, flexing the head , and pushing it as far cephalad as possible. The other hand can be used depress the perineum to relieve pressure on the umbilical cord. Although rarely used, single case reports do show a high rate of success.

HistoryNamed after William Zavanelli (1926- ), an American obstetrician from California who received his medical doctorate from College of Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons in Los Angeles in 1957. He would go on to have a modest career until 1978 when he performed his eponymous maneuver followed by a successful cesarean delivery. His partner wanted to publish the results immediately, but Zavanelli wanted to wait to see if there were any developmental issues with the child. After seven years, the case report was published. Of note, this manuever was performed 2 years prior by Gunn and his case report was published later in 1985 refuting the eponymous naming.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Sandberg EC. The Zavanelli maneuver: a potentially revolutionary method for the resolution of shoulder dystocia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985;152(4):479-84 [link]
  7. O’Leary J, Gunn D. Cephalic replacement for shoulder dystocia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985; 153(5):592-3. [pubmed]