Ep-PAINE-nym



Hippocratic Fingers

Other Known Aliases clubbing of the fingers

Definition – soft tissue swelling of the terminal phalynx

Clinical Significance this is a nonspecific clinical finding that can be caused by numerous diseases, but is classically associated with any disease that can cause physiologic hypoxia. The exact mechanism for development is unknown, but is theorized to be caused by vasodilation, secretion of growth factors, overproduction of prostaglandin E2, and increased entry of megakaryocytes.

HistoryNamed after Hippocrates (460-370 BC), who was a Greek physician and is considered to be the “Father of Medicine”, due to his approach in observation of clinical diseases. Though I cant find an original source for this eponym, it is one of those historical “facts” that nobody really challenges.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Foramen of Winslow

Other Known Aliases omental foramen, epiploic foramen

Definitionanatomic passage between the greater sac and the lesser sac of the abdomen

Clinical Significance there are four anatomic borders of this communication:

  • Anterior – hepatoduodenal ligament
  • Posterior – peritoneum covering the IVC
  • Superior – peritoneum covering the caudate lobe of the liver
  • Inferior – peritoneum covering the commencement of the duodenum and hepatic artery

HistoryNamed after Jacob Winslow (1669-1760), a Danish-born French anatomist who received his degree from Ole Borch’s College in 1693, while training under barber-surgeon Johannes de Buchwalde. He would concentrate on anatomy, instead of surgery, as the site of blood “alarmed him”. He would go on to train with many of the most revered surgeons and anatomists of his time while traveling Europe and was widely regarded as the greatest European anatomist of his day. His career would culminate in achieving professor anatomicus and full professor of anatomy at Jardin du Roi in 1743. His most famous work entitled “Exposition anatomique de la structure du corps humain” was published in 1732 and was the quintessential anatomical text of the mid-1700’s


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. WInslow JB. Exposition Anatomique de La Structure Du Corps Humain. 1732 [link]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Pringle Maneuver

Other Known Aliases none

Definitionsurgical technique whereby the hepatoduodenal ligament is clamped to limit blood flow through the hepatic artery and portal vein to the liver

Clinical Significance the specific technique is to insert an index finger through the foramen of Winslow behind the porta hepatis and pinch between the finger and the thumb. You can also slide a non-crushing clamp along the finger, or wrap a vessel loop around to occlude. This technique controls the majority of the blood flow to the liver and is used to control bleeding during liver surgery or after liver trauma.

HistoryNamed after James Hogarth Pringle (1863-1941), who was an Australian/Scottish surgeon and received his medical doctorate from the University of Edinburgh Medical School in 1885. He would have a prestigious career pioneering management and treatments for long bone fractures, head injuries, malignant melanomas, and reconstructive arterial surgery using vein grafts. He would describe his eponymous maneuver in 1908 in an article in the Annals of Surgery entitled “Notes on the Arrest of Hepatic Hemorrhage Due to Trauma”. It should also be noted that he was a fervent advocate for women in medicine, allowing them in his clinic well before any of his colleagues, and becoming Lecturer in Surgery and Demonstrator of Anatomy at Queen Margaret College, which was one of the first medical schools for women in Scotland.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Pringle JH. V. Notes on the Arrest of Hepatic Hemorrhage Due to Trauma. Ann Surg. 1908; 48(4):541-9. [PDF]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Triangle of Calot

Other Known Aliases none

Definitionanatomic space bordered by the cystic duct (inferiorly), common hepatic duct (medially) and cystic artery (superiorly)

Clinical Significance this anatomic space is where you can see lymphadenopathy in patients with cholecystitis. This is often confused with the cystohepatic triangle (read more here).

HistoryNamed after Jean-François Calot (1861-1944), who was a French surgeon and received his medical doctorate from Saine-Pe de Bigorre in 1880. He would go on to have a modest career in the field of orthopaedic surgery, and is known for describing the treatment of spinal deformities in Pott’s Disease. He would describe his eponymonic area in his doctoral thesis defense in 1891.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Calor JF, De la cholécystectomie. Doctoral thesis, Paris, 1891.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Korsakoff Syndrome

Other Known Aliases none

Definition – chronic, irreversible amnestic disorder caused by thiamine deficiency classically associated with longstanding alcohol use

Clinical Significance there are seven major symptoms of Korsakoff syndrome that can be seen clinically:

  1. Anterograde amnesia
  2. Retrograde amnesia
  3. Amnesia of fixation
  4. Confabulation
  5. Minimal content in conversation
  6. Lack of insight
  7. Apathy

This is classically taught as a continuation of Wernicke’s encephalopathy, though patients may not present in early stages.

HistoryNamed after Sergei Sergeievich Korsakoff (1854-1900), who was a Russian neuropsychiatrist and received his medical doctorate from Moscow State University in 1875. He would go on to gain fame in fields of neurology and psychiatry culminating in his appointment as professor extraordinarius at a dedicated psychiatric hospital in Moscow and helping to found the Moscow Society of Neuropathologists and Psychiatrists. His eponymous condition was first described in 1887 in his graduate thesis entitled “Alcoholic Paralysis”


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Kessels RP – Korsakoff Syndrome. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. [link]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Tourette Syndrome

Other Known Aliases Brissaud’s Disease

Definitionneurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor and vocal tic with onset during childhood

Clinical Significance the exact cause is still largely unknown, but likely results from a disturbance in the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (mesolimbic) circuit, which leads to disinhibition of the motor and limbic system. There are no specific tests to confirm and is a clinical diagnosis. The severity of the tics largely decreases, and in some instances disappears, in adolescence and adulthood.

HistoryNamed after Georges Gilles de la Tourette (1857-1904), a French neurologist who recieved his medical doctorate from University of Poitiers at the age of 16. He subsequently moved to Paris to train at the famous Laennec Hospital and Salpêtrière Hospital under Jean Martin Charcot. Under the tutelage of Charcot, he made tremendous strides in the area of psychotherapy, hysteria, psychology, and neurology and described his eponymous condition in a nine patient case series in 1884. In a rather cruel twist of fate, he was shot in the neck by a patient he had treated with hypnotism in 1893, fell into a deep depression, committed to a psychiatric hospital due to tertiary neurosyphilis, and died there in 1904.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Klumpke’s Palsy

Other Known Aliases none

Definitionparalysis of the upper extremity from a lower trunk injury classically effecting C8-T1.

Clinical Significance this brachial plexopathy can be infants as a result of birth trauma from pulling on an extending arm or in older children/adults from hanging from an outstretched arm. The classic manifestations are paralysis of the intrinsic hand muscles, fixed and flexed wrist and finger flexors, and sensory numbness of the C8/T1 dermatome leading to the textbook “claw hand” deformity.

HistoryNamed after Augusta Déjerine-Klumpke (1859-1927), an American-born French physician who received her medical doctorate from the University of Paris in 1889 after becoming the first woman to be appointed interne des hôpitaux. She would immediately make a reputation for herself by being able to speak three languages and took an interest in neuroanatomy and physiology. She would meet fellow physician and future husband, Jules Dejerine, during her studies in medical school and the two would study and publish extensively together in the realm of neurology including the classic two-volume textbook on the anatomy of the nerve centers entitled “Anatomie des Centres Nerveux”. She would describe her eponymous condition in her 1885 case review of 18 patients taken from the available medical literature and would win her the Godard prize in 1886.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Yildirim FB, Sarikcioglu L. Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke (1859-1927) and her eponym. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008; 79(1):102. [pubmed]
  7. Shoja MM, Tubbs RS. Augusta Déjerine-Klumpke: the first female neuroanatomist. Clin Anat. 2007; 20(6):585-7. [pubmed]
  8. Déjerine, JJ, Déjerine-Klumpke, A. Anatomie des Centres Nerveux. 1895. [link]
  9. Déjerine-Klumpke, A. Contribution à l’étude des paralysies radiculaires du plexus brachial. Paralysies radiculaires totales. Paralysies radiculaires inférieures. De la participation des filets sympathiques oculo-pupillaires dans ces paralysies. Revue de médecine 1885, 5: 591-616, 739-90.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Erb’s Palsy

Other Known Aliases none

Definitionparalysis of the upper extremity from an upper trunk injury classically effecting C5-C6.

Clinical Significance this brachial plexopathy is most commonly associated with birth trauma from a shoulder dystocia and depending on the severity of the injury, can resolve on its own or be permanent. The arm is classically internally rotated, with an extended and pronated forearm referred to as the “waiter’s tip” or “porter’s tip” sign.

HistoryNamed after Wilhelm Heinrich Erb (1840-1921), a German neurologist who received his medical doctorate from the the University of Heidelberg in 1864. He would spend his early career assisting Nikolaus Friedreich and Ludwig von Buhl in Munich, before becoming chair of the pathology department at the University of Leipzig in 1880, and ultimately succeeding Friedreich in 1883. He is credited with popularizing the reflex hammer use in neurologic examinations and would be instrumental in identifying and describing myasthenia gravis, tabes dorsalis, and his eponymous point in the brachial plexus where this injury arises. Of note, he is also credited with the cardiac auscultation point where the S2 is best heard.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Sarikcioglu L, Arican RY. Wilhelm Heinrich Erb (1840-1921) and his contributions to neuroscience. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007; 78(7):732. [PDF]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Pemberton Sign

Other Known Aliases none

DefinitionRaising of the patient’s arms over their head (until the arms touch their face) causes flushing and congestion of head and neck due to venous congestion and thoracic inlet obstruction.

Clinical Significance this is a simple physical examination maneuver to diagnose a patient with superior vena cava syndrome and pressure on the thoracic inlet. A positive sign is flushing and cyanosis of the head and neck with possible respiratory distress with prolonged holding and is associated with mediastinal masses, goiters, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

HistoryNamed after Hugh Spear Pemberton (1890-1956), who was an English physician and recieved his medical doctorate from the University of Liverpool in 1913. He would subsequently serve as a physician in the Royal Medical Corp during World War I and returned to Liverpool at the David Lewis Northern Hospital where he would spend his entire career. He founded one of the first diabetic clinics there in 1922 and made a name for himself in he area of endocrinology and receiving Fellowship in the Royal College of Physicians in 1941. It was in 1946 that he published a very short letter to the Lancet describing his eponymous maneuver.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Pemberton HS. SIGN OF SUBMERGED GOITRE The Lancet. 1946; 248(6423):509 [link]
  7. De Filippis EA, Sabet A, Sun MRM, Garber JR. Pemberton’s Sign: Explained Nearly 70 Years Later . 2014; 99(6):1949-1954 [link]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Heinz Bodies

Other Known Aliases Heinz-Ehrlich bodies, Ehrlich Inner Body

DefinitionDeep purple small irregular bodies in red cells stained with crystal violet which represents denatured hemoglobin due to oxidative damage.

Clinical Significance Seen in conditions with high oxidative stress such as G6PD deficiency, alpha thalassemia, NADPH deficiency, chronic liver disease, and asplenia.

HistoryNamed after Robert Heinz (1865-1924), a German physician and pharmcologist who recieved his medical doctorate from the University of Breslau in 1888. He would work in the university chemical laboratory in Jena and Munich throughout his career studying pathology, inflammation, degeneration, and regeneration of blood. It was during this time, specifically in 1890, that he published a study on the blood of guinea pigs treated with acetylphenylhydrazine to intoduce oxidative inflammation and identified his eponymous cellular structure. Of note, Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) is also regionally credited with identifying this structure but did not formally publish his findings.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. R. Heinz. Morphologische Veränderungen des roten Blutkörperchens durch Gifte. [Virchows] Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin, Berlin, 1890, 122: 112-116