Ep-PAINE-nym



Rinne Test

Other Known Aliases – none

Definitionbedside test to evaluate hearing loss using a 512hz tuning fork

Clinical Significance this maneuver is performed by vibrating a 512hz tuning fork and placing it on the mastoid process. The patient then informs the provider when they no longer can hear the ringing, at which point the tuning fork is moved in front of the canal. In normal hearing, the patient should still be able to hear the ringing (although it can also occur in sensorineural hearing loss). If conductive hearing loss is present, bone conduction is greater than air conduction.

HistoryNamed after Heinrich Adolf Rinne (1819-1868), a German otologist who received his medical doctorate from the University of Göttingen. He would practice here for the majority of his career exploring the diseases of the ears, nose, and throat. He first described his eponymous test in 1855, but did not get widespread recognition for it until 1881 when it was further publicized by otologists Bezold and Lucae


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Heck WE. Dr. A. Rinne. Laryngoscope. 1962;72(5):647-652. [link]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Puestow Procedure

Other Known Aliases – Puestow-Gillesby procedure, lateral pancreaticojejunostomy

Definitionside-to-side anastomosis of the main pancreatic duct of Wirsung to the proximal jejunum

Clinical Significance this is a surgical management option for patients with chronic pancreatitis by simultaneously facilitating drainage and preserving physiologic function of the pancreas.

HistoryNamed after Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973), an American surgeon who recieved his medical doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania in 1925. He would serve as a military surgeon during the 2nd World War and commanded the 27th Evacuation Hospital providing surgical services to wounded soldiers in Europe and North Africa. His commitment to the veteran population would continue after the war when he established the first surgical residency program based in a veterans hospitals in the United States in 1946. It was at Hines Veterans Hospital in Illinois where he and his partner, William Gillesby, would publish their experience and outcomes on 21 patients with chronic pancreatitis in 1958, which would lead to the creation of his eponymonic surgical procedure.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Bosmia AN, Christein JD. Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973): American surgeon and commander of the 27th Evacuation Hospital during the Second World War. J Med Biogr. 2017; 25(3):147-152. [pubmed]
  7. PUESTOW CB, GILLESBY WJ. Retrograde surgical drainage of pancreas for chronic relapsing pancreatitis. AMA Arch Surg. 1958; 76(6):898-907. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Ranson’s Criteria

Other Known Aliases – none

Definitionclinical decision instrument to predict mortality of acute pancreatitis on admission and after the first 48 hours

Clinical Significance this was one of the first instruments to help with the initial management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Now, it has been largely been replaced by more accurate and reliable calculations and is taught only for historical purposes.

History – Named after John H. C. Ranson (1938-1995), an English-American surgeon who received his medical doctorate from Oxford University in 1960. He would complete his surgical residency at Bellevue Hospital and New York University Medical Center, where he would join as faculty and later as the Director of the Division of General Surgery. He would have a prolific career primarily focusing on the alimentary tract with concentration on the pancreas. He would publish his eponymous scoring system in 1974 which not only improved the clinical care of patients with pancreatitis, but also improved the quality of the research by finally being able to compare severity groups of treatment arms.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Reber HA. Obituary – John H. C. Ranson, Pancreas: April 1996 – Volume 12 – Issue 3 – p 215 [link]
  7. Ranson JH, Rifkind KM, Roses DF, Fink SD, Eng K, Spencer FC. Prognostic signs and the role of operative management in acute pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1974;139(1):69-81. [link]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Barrett’s Esophagus

Other Known Aliases – Allison-Johnstone anomaly

Definitionmetaplastic change of the mucosal cells of the lower esophagus from normal stratified squamous epithelium to simple colunar epithelium and interspaced goblet cells

Clinical Significance these histologic changes are premaligant and significantly increases a patient’s risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma.

HistoryNamed after Norman Rupert Barrett (1903-1979), an Australian-born British thoracic surgeon who received his medical doctorate from Trinity College, Cambridge. He would practice his entire career at St. Thomas Hospital, with a brief training period in 1935-1936 when he traveled to the US on a Rockfeller Traveling Fellowship. It was here that he decided to pursue thoracic surgery instead of GI surgery. In 1947, he performed the first successful surgical repair of a ruptured esophagus. He would publish his eponymous findings of histologic changes of the distal esophagus in 1950, but erroneously believed this was due to congenitally shortened esophagus with a portion of the stomach trapped in the chest. Allison and Johnstone were the first to argue that these changes were esophagus, not stomach, and termed these ulcers “Barrett’s ulcers”. Of note, Allison first described this condition in 1948 before Barrett’s publication.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Barrett NR. Chronic peptic ulcer of the oesophagus and oesophagitis. British Journal of Surgery. 1950;38:175-182. [link]
  7. P. R. Allison, A. S. Johnstone. The esophagus lined with gastric mucous membrane. Thorax, 1953, 8: 87.
  8. P. R. Allison. Peptic ulcer of the Oesopahgus. Thorax, 1948, 3: 20.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Charcot’s Triad

Other Known Aliases – none

Definitiontriad of physical examination findings seen with ascending cholangitis and includes jaundice, fever, and right upper quadrant pain.

Clinical Significance this is a classic triad to memorize for your surgery rotation to help differentiate cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, and cholangitis.

HistoryNamed after Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), a French neurologist and professor of anatomic pathology who recieved his medical doctorate from the University of Paris in 1853. He would start his career at the famous Hôpital de Salpêtrière and stay there for over 30 years establishing the reputation of this hospital as the premier training center in Europe. He would also create the first neurology clinic in all of Europe at the Salpêtrière where his reputation would be solidified as the “father of modern neurology”. His career is too prestigious to give it justice in a quick eponym review, as evidenced by at least 15 current eponyms bearing his name.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Dalrymple Sign

Other Known Aliases – none

Definitionretraction of the upper eyelid in Grave’s disease causing abnormal wideness of the palpebral fissure

Clinical Significance a classic examination of the ophthalmopathy of thyrotoxicosis in which you will see the white of the sclera clearly visible at the upper margin of the cornea with direct outward gaze.

HistoryNamed after John Dalrymple (1803-1852), an English ophthalmologist who received his medical doctorate from the University of Edinburgh in 1827. He would spend his entire, albeit short due to ill health, career as an eye surgeon at the Royal Ophthalmic Hospital in London. He was also a skilled histologist and microscopist and was the first to publish on the findings of the Bence Jones protein of multiple myeloma. His eponymonic examination finding was published, shortly before his untimely death at 47, in his magnum opus “Pathology of the Human Eye” in 1852.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Tanner Stages

Other Known Aliases – sexual maturity rating

Definitionscale of physical development in children, adolescents, and adults based on primary and secondary sex characteristics

Clinical Significance every patient will progress through each of the five stages during development, but due to innate individual variability, the rate and timing of each of the stages is highly variable. There are both a male and female scale and evaluates breast and testicular size, genitals, and pubic hair distribution.

HistoryNamed after James Mourilyan Tanner (1920-2010), a British pediatric endocrinologist who received his medical doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania in 1944, as well as a fellowship in endocrinology from Johns Hopkins as a result of a Rockefeller exchange grant program. A supurb hurdler and athlete prior to WWII, he likely would have competed in the in 1940 Olympics. Following his training stateside, he would return to England to oversee a national study on the effects of malnutrition on children. While documenting and analyzing the data, he noticed a trend of secondary physical characteristics as children and adolescents developing into adulthood. This led to a 20-year longitudinal study on human development and the publication of his eponymous staging system in 1962 in his classic textbook “Growth at Adolescence”.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. James Mourilyan Tanner. Royal College of Physicians. https://history.rcplondon.ac.uk/inspiring-physicians/james-mourilyan-tanner
  7. Growth at Adolescence, 2nd ed. (1962) Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Sertoli Cells

Other Known Aliases – none

Definitionsustentacular cell of the convoluted seminiferous tubule of the testes

Clinical Significance these cells are activated by FSH to produce and mature sperm during spermatogenesis

HistoryNamed after Enrico Sertoli (1842-1910), who was an Italian physiologist and histologist and received his medical doctorate from the University of Pavia in 1865. His love and passion for histology was groomed while training under Eusebio Oehl, who was an early pioneer in microscopic anatomy and histopathology. He would go on to become professor of anatomy and physiology at the Royal School of veterinary medicine in Milan and it was here that he founded the laboratory of experimental physiology. In 1865, during his tenure in Milan, he published the paper describing his eponymous cell.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Sertoli E. Dell’esistenza di particolari cellule ramificate nei canalicoli seminiferi del testicolo umano. Morgagni, 1865; 7: 31-40

Ep-PAINE-nym



Fournier’s Gangrene

Other Known Aliases – none

Definitionnecrotizing fasciitis of the external genitalia and/or perineum

Clinical Significance this infection commonly affects older men and is associated with diabetes mellitus or a compromised immune system. Other risk factors include trauma or surgery to the perineal area, alcoholism, and childbirth. Pain, erythema, crepitus, and fever are common findings and treatment is aggressive surgical debridement and antibiotics to cover anaerobic and facultative pathogens.

HistoryNamed after Jean Alfred Fournier (1832-1914), who was a French dermatologist and venereologist, and received his medical doctorate in 1860 while studying in Paris. He would begin his career as an understudy of Philippe Ricord at the Hôpital du Midi and would later become médecine des hôpitaux at the famed Hôtel-Dieu de Paris. It was in 1883 when he presented a case series of patients with gangrene of perineum and for which this eponym is attributed, although it was first described and published in 1764 by Baurienne. He is best known for his work with congenital syphilis (for which he has two additional eponyms) and advancing the study of venereal diseases and their connection to degenerative diseases.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Fournier, J.A. Gangrène foudroyante de la verge. La Semaine Médicale. 3 1883;(56): 345–347
  7. Toodayan N. Jean Alfred Fournier (1832-1914): His contributions to dermatology. http://www.odermatol.com/issue-in-html/2015-4-32/
  8. Waugh MA. Alfred Fournier, 1832-1914. His influence on venereology. Br J Vener Dis. 1974; 50(3):232-6. [PDF]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Kienböck Disease

Other Known Aliases – none

Definitionavascular necrosis of the lunate

Clinical Significance most often results from trauma with biomechanical and vascular abnormalities that lead to progressive bone death. Patients will report wrist pain with decreased range of motion and grip strength. MRI is best for early diagnosis and treatment depends on the stage of disease using the Lichtman Classification system.

HistoryNamed after Robert Kienböck (1871-1953), who was an Austrian radiologist and received his medical doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1895. He would explore the new and blossoming field of radiology before becoming the head of the radiological department at Vienna General Hospital before becoming professor of radiology in 1926. He was a pioneer in the use of x-rays for medical diagnosis and would co-found the Vienna Radiology Society in 1923. He would publish his eponymous condition in 1910 in his treatise Über traumatische Malazie des Mondbeins und ihre Folgezustände (Traumatic malacia of the lunate and its consequences).


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Orthobullets. Kienbock Disease. https://www.orthobullets.com/hand/6050/kienbocks-disease
  7. Wagner JP, Chung KC. A Historical Report on Robert Kienböck and Kienböck Disease. The Journal of Hand Surgery. 2005;30(6):1117-1121. [link]
  8. Kienböck R. Über traumatische Malazie des Mondbeins und ihre Folgezustände: Entartungsformen und Kompressionfrakturen. Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen. 1910–1911; 16: 77-103.