Ep-PAINE-nym



Sjögren’s Syndrome

Other Known AliasesGougerot’s syndrome

Definitionchronic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by diminished lacrimal and salivary gland function

Clinical Significance Patients affected by this disease have dry eyes, dry mouth, dry skin, and various other systemic abnormalities. The exact mechanism is unknown, but is believed to be a combination of genetics (HLA association) and environmental triggers (viral pathogens).

HistoryNamed after Henrik Samuel Conrad Sjögren (1899-1986), who was a Swedish ophthalmologist who received his medical doctorate from the Karolinksa Institutet in 1922. He married a classmate of his (Maria Hellgren), who also happened to be the daughter of one of the most prominent ophthalmologists in Stockholm. He first encountered his future eponymous disease in 1925, and published a case report of five patients in 1930. He completed his doctoral thesis in 1993 on “Zur Kenntnis der keratoconjunctivitis sicca”, but unfortunately did not earn him the title of docent to pursue a career in academia. He did however enjoy a prolific career with numerous honorific appointments…..including docent at the University of Göteborg in 1961.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. https://hekint.org/2018/09/11/henrik-sjogren-and-his-syndrome/
  7. Sjögren H. Zur Kenntnis der keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Keratitis filiformis bei Hypofunktion der Tränendrüsen. Acta Ophthalmol. 1933;2:1–151
  8. Murube J. Henrik Sjögren, 1899-1986. The ocular surface. 2010; 8(1):2-7. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Thompson’s Test

Other Known AliasesSimmond’s Test

Definitionpassive accessory movement test of the ankle to test for a ruptured achilles tendon

Clinical Significance To perform, place the patient in a pron position or kneeling on the injured extremity’s knee without supporting the foot and ankle. The grasp the muscle belly of the gastrocnemius and observe for passive plantarflexion. A positive test results in inability to plantarflex and confirms a complete rupture of the achilles tendon.

HistoryNamed after Theodore Thompson (1902-1986), an American orthopaedic surgeon who received his medical doctorate from Johns Hopkins University in 1928. Prior to enrolling at Hopkins, he was involved in a traumatic arm injury working at a steel mill where his arm went through a planer. Luckily, a local orthopaedic surgeon, knowing Thompson want to go into medicine, did not amputate and reconstructed his arm to regain full function. His career achievements include heading the amputation center at Walter Reed Hospital during World War II and becoming president of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in 1954. He described his eponymous finding in 1962 in two separate articles….which was AFTER Franklin Adin Simmonds (1910-1983), a British orthopaedic surgeon, published the same findings in 1957. Thompson did however acknowledge and reference Simmonds in his 1962 paper. Depending on what side of the pond you trained on will determine how you learned the name of this test.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. THOMPSON TC, DOHERTY JH. Spontaneous rupture of tendon of Achilles: a new clinical diagnostic test. The Journal of trauma. 1962; 2:126-9. [pubmed]
  7. THOMPSON TC. A test for rupture of the tendo achillis. Acta orthopaedica Scandinavica. 1962; 32:461-5. [pubmed]
  8. Simmonds FA. The diagnosis of the ruptured achilles tendon. The Practitioner. 1957;179(1069-1074):56-58 [article]
  9. Physiopaedia. Thompson Test. https://www.physio-pedia.com/Thompson_Test

Ep-PAINE-nym



Lachman’s Test

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitionpassive accessory movement test of the knee performed to identify the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament

Clinical Significance Place the patient’s knee in about 20-30 degrees flexion and externally rotated slightly. The examiner should place one hand behind the tibia and the other on the patient’s thigh. It is important that the examiner’s thumb be on the tibial tuberosity. On pulling the tibia anteriorly, an intact ACL should prevent forward translational movement of the tibia on the femur. A positive test is > 2mm of movement compared to the unaffected knee.

HistoryNamed after John Lachman (1919-2007), who was an American orthopaedic surgeon and received his medical doctorate from the Temple University School of Medicine in 1945. He was described as a prolific teacher, mentor, and surgeon making his mark across students, faculty, and patients over illustrious career. As a testament to this, his eponymous test was published by one of his colleagues who named and attributed it to him in 1987.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Gurtler RA, Stine R, Torg JS. Lachman test evaluated. Quantification of a clinical observation. Clinical orthopaedics and related research. 1987; [pubmed]
  7. Physiopaedia. Lachman Test. https://www.physio-pedia.com/Lachman_Test

Ep-PAINE-nym



Kernig’s Sign

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitionpain with passive knee extension after placing the hip and knee in flexion

Clinical Significance This maneuver is due to meningeal irritation and inflammation and can be seen in meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and encephalitis. It is one of the two classic physical examination signs for bacterial meningitis, but does not have robust sensitivity nor specificity for the disease. It is now relegated to historical context.

HistoryNamed after Vladimir Mikhailovich Kernig (1840-1917), who was a revered Russian internist and neurologist and received his medical doctorate in 1864 the University of Dorpat. He went on to have a prolific teaching career throughout Russia prior to World War I. He published the description of his eponymous finding in 1882 in an article in the St. Petersberg Medizinische Wochenschrift describing cases of findings from patients with bacterial meningitis.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Mehndiratta M, Nayak R, Garg H, Kumar M, Pandey S. Appraisal of Kernig’s and Brudzinski’s sign in meningitis. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology. 2012; 15(4):287-8. [pubmed]
  7. Thomas KE, Hasbun R, Jekel J, Quagliarello VJ. The diagnostic accuracy of Kernig’s sign, Brudzinski’s sign, and nuchal rigidity in adults with suspected meningitis. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2002; 35(1):46-52. [pubmed]
  8. Kernig VM (1882). “Ein Krankheitssymptom der acuten Meningitis”. St Petersb Med Wochensch. 7: 398
  9. Ward MA, Greenwood TM, Kumar DR, Mazza JJ, Yale SH. Josef Brudzinski and Vladimir Mikhailovich Kernig: signs for diagnosing meningitis. Clinical medicine & research. 2010; 8(1):13-7. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Brudziński’s Sign

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitionforced flexion of the neck causes a reflex flexion of the hips

Clinical Significance This maneuver is due to meningeal irritation and inflammation and can be seen in meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and encephalitis. It is one of the two classic physical examination signs for bacterial meningitis, but does not have robust sensitivity nor specificity for the disease. It is now relegated to historical context.

HistoryNamed after Józef Polikarp Brudiński (1874-1917), who was a Polish pediatrician and received his medical doctorate from the University of Moscow in 1897. He practiced at the Anne-Marie children’s hospital in Lodz and was a guiding figure in turning this institution into a model teaching hospital. In 1910, he then was able to design a children’s hospital in Warsaw with financial backing from philanthropist Sophie Szlenker. During this transition period, he also founded the first Polish journal of pediatrics. He best known for his work in pediatric infectious diseases and has his name attributed to several other physical examination findings in meningitis. His most famous was first described and published in 1909 in The Medical Archives for Infants.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Mehndiratta M, Nayak R, Garg H, Kumar M, Pandey S. Appraisal of Kernig’s and Brudzinski’s sign in meningitis. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology. 2012; 15(4):287-8. [pubmed]
  7. Thomas KE, Hasbun R, Jekel J, Quagliarello VJ. The diagnostic accuracy of Kernig’s sign, Brudzinski’s sign, and nuchal rigidity in adults with suspected meningitis. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2002; 35(1):46-52. [pubmed]
  8. J. Brudziñski. Un signe nouveau sur les membres inférieurs dans les méningites chez les enfants (signe de la nuque). Archives de médecine des enfants, Paris 1909, 12: 745-752.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Morgagni Hernia

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitionanterior or retrosternal congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Clinical SignificanceThis is a rare type of congenital diaphragmatic hernias seen in only 2% of cases. It occurs through the foramina of Morgagni immediately adjacent and posterior to the xiphoid process.

HistoryNamed after Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), who was an Italian anatomist and received his medical and philosophy doctorate from the University of Bologna in 1701 at the age of 19. He had a passion for studying anatomy and trained as a prosector for Antonio Valsalva at the Santa Maria della Morte hospital in Bologna. His reputation grew during this time and he was invited all over Europe to write about and teach anatomy. His greatest work would be “De Sedibus et causis morborum per anatomem indagatis” (Of the seats and causes of diseases investigated through anatomy”. This was a five book, two volume tome of his life’s work and is regarded as one of the founding works for modern pathological anatomy….if not one of the most fundamentally important works in the history of medicine.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Loukas M, El-Sedfy A, Tubbs RS, Gribben WB, Shoja MM, Cermakova A. Vincent Alexander Bochdalek (1801-1883). World journal of surgery. 2008; 32(10):2324-6. [pubmed]
  7. Bochdalek VA. Einige Betrachtungen über die Entstehung des angeborenen Zwerchfellbruches als Beitrag zur pathologischen Anatomie der Hernien. Vierteljahrschrift für die praktische Heilkunde. (Prag) 1848;19:89

Ep-PAINE-nym



Bochdalek Hernia

Other Known Aliasesnone

DefinitionPostero-lateral congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Clinical SignificanceThis type of congenital malformation can cause severe respiratory distress in a newborn as a result of compression on the lungs from herniated peritoneal contents. This is a surgical disease and infants are admitted to the NICU and supported via mechanical ventilation or ECMO until surgery can be planned.

HistoryNamed Vincent Bochdalek (1801-1883), who was a Bohemian anatomist and pathologist and received his medical doctorate from the University of Prague in 1833. He would later in his career return to his alma mater as a professor of anatomy for several decades where he earned is reputation as a prominent anatomist. He was a fervent advocate for establishing anatomy labs throughout Prague and was one of the founding physicians in the Prague School of Medicine. He was one of the pioneers in describing congenital diaphragmatic hernias in newborns and, unfortunately, there is little in the medical literature regarding him, but his eponym lives on. He published his extensive findings on his eponymous condition in 1848.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Loukas M, El-Sedfy A, Tubbs RS, Gribben WB, Shoja MM, Cermakova A. Vincent Alexander Bochdalek (1801-1883). World journal of surgery. 2008; 32(10):2324-6. [pubmed]
  7. Bochdalek VA. Einige Betrachtungen über die Entstehung des angeborenen Zwerchfellbruches als Beitrag zur pathologischen Anatomie der Hernien. Vierteljahrschrift für die praktische Heilkunde. (Prag) 1848;19:89