Ep-PAINE-nym



Gerota’s Fascia

 

Other Known AliasesRenal fascia

DefinitionConnective tissue layers covering the kidneys and adrenal glands

Clinical Significance This connective tissue encapsulates these organs and must be excised to perform nephrectomies and adrenalectomies.  It has 4 attachments:

  • Anterior attachment – Connects the anterior layer of the renal fascia of the opposite kidney.
  • Posterior attachment – Connects the psoas fascia and the body of the vertebrae.
  • Superior attachment – The anterior and posterior layers fuse at the upper pole of the kidney and then split to enclose the adrenal gland. At the upper part of the adrenal gland they again fuse to form the suspensory ligament of the adrenal gland and fuse with the diaphragmatic fascia.
  • Inferior attachment – The posterior layer descends downwards and fuses with the iliac fascia. The anterior layer blends with the connective tissue of the iliac fossa.

History – Named after Dimitrie D. Gerota (1867-1939), who was a Romanian physician and professor of surgical anatomy and experimental surgery at the University of Bucharest.  He was also the first radiologist in Romania and developed a method for injecting lymphatic vessels known as “The Gerota Method”

13-foto1

 


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

 

Other Known AliasesLupus

DefinitionAutoimmune disease that can effect the entire system…most commonly skin, joints, and constitutional.

Clinical Significance For this eponym, there is no clinical significance.  Just a cool fact I wanted to bring up….

History – You may have been wondering (or maybe not) where the “lupus” part of this disease comes from.  Having studied Latin in high school all four years, this perplexed me in PA school because “lupus” is Greek for wolf.  So why did early physicians decide on throwing “wolf” into the disease title?

Well (since you asked), it has been attributed to the 13th century Rogerius (who practiced with his friend, Stevius) who thought the characteristic erosive, dermatologic skin findings were similar to the effects of a wolf bite.

 

For those fellow PotterHeads out there, now you know the foreshadowing of (my favorite character) Remus LUPIN in the series.

Image result for lupin potter


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Blotzer JW. Systemic lupus erythematosus I: historical aspects. Maryland State Medical Journal. 1983; 32(6):439-41. [pubmed]
  6. Bertino LS, Lu LC. The bite of a wolf: systemic lupus erythematosus. Rehabilitation nursing : the official journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses. 1993; 18(3):173-8. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Achilles Tendon

 

Other Known AliasesCalcaneal tendon

DefinitionThe tendon attaching the gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus muscle to the calcaneus.

Achilles-tendon.jpg

Clinical Significance The Achilles tendon is the thickest tendon in the body and rupturing this structure takes a tremendous amount of force.  Powerful plantarflexion while jumping is the most common mechanism and most commonly occurs in inflammed or chronically stressed tendons.

History – I am a bit of a mythology geek and I love this eponym.  The Achilles tendon was named after the famous Greek warrior, Achilles, who was the hero of the Trojan War for killing Prince Hector, son of King Priam of Troy.  This is a major part of Homer’s Illiad. 

I digress…..

The reason for this eponym is that Achilles’ mother is Thetis, an immortal sea nymph, who could not bear to see her child injured or killed.  To remedy this, she dipped him in the River Styx to make him invulnerable.  Since he was mortal, she couldn’t just drop him in, so she held him by the heel.  The spot on his heel that was held by Thetis was unprotected and ultimately would be his “Achilles Heel” (get it) when an arrow shot by Paris, brother of Hector, pierced this spot and killed him.

Image result for achilles river styxThetis dipping Achilles in the River Styx by Thomas Banks 02.jpg

Image result for achilles arrow to the ankle

 


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Lisfranc Injury

 

Other Known AliasesTarsometatarsal fracture/dislocation

DefinitionFracture/dislocation of the articulation of the tarsal bones with the metatarsals of the foot.

Clinical Significance The Lisfranc joint of the foot is where the first three metatarsals articulate with the three cuneiforms and the fourth and fifth metatarsals articulate with the cuboid. The Lisfranc ligament attaches the medial cuneiform to the 2nd metatarsal bone on the the plantar surface of the foot.  This is a very serious injury of the foot and sometimes may simple present as a bad sprain.  This injury is most common seen with direct crush injuries and indirect load onto a plantar flexed foot.

Image result for lisfranc jointRelated imageImage result for lisfranc ligament

History – This injury was first described by Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847), a French surgeon who served in Napoleon’s army in 1813.  He noted this injury pattern in Calvary soldiers who fell from their horse and caught their foot in the stirrup. 

 

Image result for jacques lisfranc


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Welck MJ, Zinchenko R, Rudge B. Lisfranc injuries. Injury. 2015; 46(4):536-41. [pubmed]
  6. Chaney DM. The Lisfranc joint. Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery. 2010; 27(4):547-60. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Aviator’s Astragalus

 

Other Known AliasesNone

Definition – Any fracture dislocation of the talus.

Clinical Significance None.  This is an antiquated term for talar injuries

History – First coined in 1919 by Henry Graeme Anderson, who was a consulting surgeon for the Royal Flying Corps during World War I.  He described 18 cases of fracture and dislocation of the talus in pilots between 1914-1919.  During the early history of flight, planes did not reach lethal speeds and when they crashed, the rudder bar (which was controlled by the pilot’s feet) would get driven up into the instep of the foot just anterior to the calcaneous.

Image result for plane rudder bar world war one

Image result for talus fracture mechanism


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Anderson HG.  The Medical and Surgical Aspects of Aviation.  The Henry Frowde Oxford University Press.  London, 1919
  6. Coltart WD.  Aviator’s Astragalus.  Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1952;34(4):545-566.
  7. Lee P.  Musculoskeletal Colloquialisms: How Did We Come Up with These Names?.  Radiographics.  2004;24(4):1009-1027.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Tullio’s Phenomenon

 

Other Known AliasesSound-induced vestibular activation.

Definition – Vertigo, dizziness, nausea, and nystagmus caused by a load noise.

Clinical Significance This pathology is due to a communication between the middle and inner ear classically associated with congenital syphilis.  Recently, it has been associated with superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS).  This can also be elicited with nose-blowing, valsalva, and heavy lifting.

History – Named after Italian biologist Pietro Tullio, Ph.D. (1881-1941), who originally studied this finding in pigeons and published it in 1929. 

Tullio blowing a whistle in the ear of rabbit test subject


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com/
  5. Tullio, Pietro: Das Ohr und die Entstehung der Sprache und Schrift. Berlin, Germany: Urban & Schwarzenberg; 1929.
  6. Kaski D, Davies R, Luxon L, Bronstein AM, Rudge P. The Tullio phenomenon: a neurologically neglected presentation. Journal of Neurology. 2012; 259(1):4-21. [pubmed]
  7. Halmagyi GM, Curthoys IS, Colebatch JG, Aw ST. Vestibular responses to sound. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2005; 1039:54-67. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Argyll Robertson Pupils

 

Other Known Aliases – Prostitute’s Pupil

Definition – Small, bilateral pupils with an absence of miotic reaction to light, both direct and consensual, with preservation of miotic reaction to near stimulus.  In other words, they accommodate, but do not react light (light-near dissociation).

Clinical Significance Classically associated with tabes dorsalis of neurosyphylis, but can also be seen in diabetic neuropathy.  Rare now due to the widespread of antibiotics and treating early syphilis infections

History – Named after Douglas Moray Cooper Lamb Argyll Robertson (1837-1909), who was a Scottish surgeon and ophthalmologist and one of the first to specialize in the eye.  He published his findings of several case reports in two articles in the “Edinburgh Medical Journal” in 1869.  Previous to this however, he was also the first to discover and use the extract of the Calabar bean (otherwise known as physostigmine) for treatment of various eye disorders.

“Dougie”, as his friends called him****


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com/
  5. Robertson DA. On an interesting series of eye symptoms in a case of spinal disease, with remarks on the action of belladonna on the iris. Edinb Med J. 1869;14:696–708.
  6. Robertson DA. Four cases of spinal myosis with remarks on the action of light on the pupil. Edinb Med J. 1869;15:487–493
  7. Robertson, D. A.:  On the Calabar Bean as a New Agent in Ophthalmic Medicine.  Edinb Med J. 1863;93:815-820.

****I have no source for this but he looks like a Dougie….plus with a name like Douglas Moray Cooper Lamb Argyll Robertson, you have to have a nickname, right?