Ep-PAINE-nym



Broca’s Aphasia

Other Known Aliasesexpressive aphasia

Definitionpartial or full inability to produce language/communication in any form, with full preservation of language/communication comprehension

Clinical Significance this condition manifests due to damage to Broca’s area of the brain. This region is bounded by the pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere.

HistoryNamed after Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880), who was a French physician and anatomist who received his medical doctorate from the University of Paris in 1844 at the age of 20. He went on to study under and assist Peirre Gerdy before becoming the youngest prosector for his alma mater in 1848. He went on to practice in various surgical and pathologic specialties culminating as Chair of Clinical Surgery in 1868 at the University of Paris. In 1861, in an effort to support the cerebral localization theory for speech, he dissected the brain of a patient with a 21-year progressive loss speech, after succumbing to a gangrenous infection of his paretic limb, where he found a frontal lobe lesion. He would go on to find similar localized lesions on 13 additional patients with expressive aphasia and called this region the “circonvolution du language”. He would later be given the posthumous eponym by David Ferrier who termed this area “Broca’s convolution”.

Other notable accomplishments include describing muscular dystrophy before Duchenne, rickets as a nutritional disease before Virchow, and the venous spread of cancer before von Rokitansky.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Broca, P.P. (1861) Loss of Speech, Chronic Softening, and Partial Destruction of the Anterior Left Lobe of the Brain. Bulletin de la Société Anthropologique, 2, 235-238.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Blumer’s Shelf

Other Known Aliasesrectal shelf

Definitionshelf-like tumor of the anterior rectal wall (Pouch of Douglas) felt on rectal examination

Clinical Significance palpation of this “shelf” indicates implantation metastases from primary abdominal malignancy

HistoryNames after George Blumer (1872-1962), who was an English-American physician and recieved his medical doctorate from the Cooper Medical College (forerunner of Stanford’s medical school) in 1891. He would go onto to train under William Halstead and William Osler at Johns Hopkins Hospital at house officer. In 1906, he became professor of medicine at Yale culminating in Dean of the medical school from 1910-1920. It was during this tenure (1909) when he described his eponymous finding in an article entitled “Rectal shelf: neglected rectal sign of value in diagnosis of obscure malignant and inflammatory disease within the abdomen”.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Blumer G. Rectal shelf: neglected rectal sign of value in diagnosis of obscure malignant and inflammatory disease within the abdomen. Albany Medical Annals. 1909;30:361-366.
  7. Haubrich WS. Blumer of Blumer’s Shelf. Gastroenterology. 2000;118(1):30

Ep-PAINE-nym



Codman’s Triangle

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitiontriangular area of new subperiosteal bone that is created when a bone tumor raises the periosteum away from the healthy bone

Clinical Significance this occurs because the tumor is growing at a faster rate than the periosteum can expand, which leads to the periosteum tearing away and providing a second edge of ossification (thus making the triangle). Presence of this finding is highly suggested of a fast growing, malignancy.

HistoryNames after Ernest Amory Codman (1869-1940), who was an American surgeon and received his medical doctorate from Harvard University in 1895. Aside from being an accomplished surgeon, he fought for hospital reform and was an early adopter and advocate for patient-based outcomes. In fact, he created “End Result Cards” for his patients which included all diagnosis, procedures, and treatment for every one of his patients that he tracked for at least one year. He was also the first physician at Massachusetts General Hospital to institute a morbidity and mortality conference. Unfortunately, he lost his surgical privileges when he wanted to institute a plan for evaluating surgical competence. He went on to found his own hospital based on end-results and published these findings to the general public in 1916. He established the first bone tumor registry in the US and helped lead the founding of the American College of Surgeons and its Hospital Standardized Program, which eventually became the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. A Study in Hospital Efficiency. Boston : Privately printed, 1916.
  7. Bone Sarcoma, an Interpretation of the Nomenclature Used by the Committee of the Registry of Bone Sarcoma of the American College of Surgeons. New York : P. B. Hoeber, 1925.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Virchow’s Triad

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitiontriad of broad categories of factors that contribute to thrombosis: hypercoaguability, endothelial injury, and stasis of blood flow

Clinical Significance These factors should always be considered in patients with suspected DVT, PTE, or acute arterial occlusion. Thought broad, they represent a simplistic mindmap to think of differential diagnoses and causes for patients with suspected conditions.

HistoryNames after Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (1821-1902), who was a German physician and received his medical doctorate from the Friedrich-Wilhelms Institute in 1843. He had an interesting career in that he was a prolific writer (producing more than 2000 scientific manuscript), but also very politically charged and challenged not only the government, but also the status quo of medical education and dogmatism. This fervor allowed him to push the boundaries of what was known and being taught in medical schools and made him a well-known teacher, orator, and leader in the field of pathology. He first published his treatise on thrombosis in 1856 where he described his triad, but the eponym was not attributed to him until the mid-1900s.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Virchow RLC. Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur wissenschaftlichen Medicin. Frankfurt am Main, 1 Meidinger, 1856+
  7. Bagot CN, Arya R. Virchow and his triad: a question of attribution. British journal of haematology. 2008; 143(2):180-90. [pubmed]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Döhle Bodies

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitionlight, blue-gray intra-cytosplasmic structures composed of agglutinated ribosomes most commonly found on neutrophils

Clinical Significance These inclusions are thought to be the remnants of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and represent defects in cell production and maturation during granulocytopoesis. As a result, Döhle bodies are seen in patients with infection, inflammation, and/or high physiologic stress, but may also be seen in pregnancy.

History – Named after Karl Gottfried Paul Döhle (1885-1928), who was a German pathologist and received his medical doctorate from the University of Kiel in 1882. He joined the faculty at his alma mater (where he would remain for his entire career) as an assistant to Arnold Ludwig Heller in 1883. He was an introvert by nature and rarely attended medical conferences and published very little of his work, but was well-renowned across his university. His work with Heller on describing syphilitic aortitis was groundbreaking and what eventually brought him contemporary fame in the field of histopathology. He published his findings on his eponymous cells in an article in 1892


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Döhle KGP. Vorläufige Mittheilung über Blutbefunde bei Masern. Zentralblatt für allgemeine Pathologie und pathologische Anatomie. Jena. 1892;3:150-152.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Stein-Leventhal Syndrome

Other Known AliasesPolycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

Definitionclinical syndrome of hyperandrogenism, oligoanovulation, and polycystic ovaries.

Clinical Significance PCOS is the most common cause of female infertility and should be investigated in women as part of the infertility workup. Women with PCOS can also have acne, hirsutism, menstrual irregularity, virilization, obesity, insulin-resistance, and metabolic syndrome. It is typically diagnosed in adolescents due to the phenotypic syndromic features.

HistoryNamed after Irving F. Stein, Sr. (1887-1976) and Michael L. Leventhal (1901-1971) and both received their medical doctorates from Rush Medical College in 1912 and 1924 respectively. Both met while practicing at Michael Reese Hospital in early to mid-1900s. They presented a case report of 7 cases of amenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, and enlarged polycystic ovarias in 1934 at the Central Association of Obstetrics and Gynecologists. They published these findings one year later in 1935 in an article entitled “Amenorrhea associated with bilateral polycystic ovaries” in the Americal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. It should be noted that Russian gynecologist S.K. Lesnoy first described polycystic ovaries in 1928, but not the complete syndrome.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Baskett TF. Eponym and Names in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 3rd Ed. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press. 2019.
  7. Powell JL. Powell’s Pearls: Irving Freiler Stein, MD (1887-1976) and Michael Leo Leventhal (1901-1971). FPMRS. 2008;14(5):413-414. [article]
  8. Stein IF, Leventhal ML. Amenorrhea associated with bilateral polycystic ovaries. AJOG. 1935;29(2):181-191. [article]

Ep-PAINE-nym



Naegele’s rule

Other Known Aliasesestimated date of delivery

Definitionestimation of delivery assuming a 280 day gestation period and is calculated from the FIRST day of the last menstrual cycle by adding 1 year, subtracting 3 months, and adding 7 days.

Clinical Significance this is a quick and easy estimation of the delivery date for planning purposes and is used in most apps and delivery wheels. In the age of ease of ultrasound, direct measurement is becoming the standard, but this is still a very important calculation to remember.

HistoryNamed after Franz Karl Naegele (1778-1851), who was a German obstetrician and received his medical doctorate from the the University of Bamberg. He had a very successful practice in Barmen, Germany, before he went on to become full professor of obstetrics in 1810 at the University of Heidelberg. He first mentioned his rule, and credited Hermann Boerhaave who first mentioned it in 1744, in a manuscript in 1812, but was given the eponym by Gunning Bedford, professor of obstetrics and diseases of Women and Children at the University of New York, in 1872.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Baskett TF. Eponym and Names in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 3rd Ed. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press. 2019.
  7. Baskett TF, Nagele F. Naegele’s Rule: a reappraisal. BJOG. 200;107(1):1433-1435.
  8. Naegele FC. Erfahrungen und Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiethe der Krankheiten des Weiblichen Geschlechtes. Nebst Grundziigen einer Methodenlehre der Geburtshiilfe. Mannheim: Loeffler, 1812: 280-281
  9. Bedford GS. The Principles and Practice of Obstetrics. 5th Edition. New York William Wood and Co, 1872:306.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Cooper’s Ligaments

Other Known Aliasesligamenta suspensoria mammaria

Definitionconnective tissue of the breast that helps maintain structural integrity

Clinical Significance these ligaments run from the clavicle and clavipectoral fascia to the dermis of the skin under the breast and their main clinical function is to support the breast and contribute to the shape and contour of the breast.

HistoryNamed after Sir Astley Paston Cooper (1768-1841), who was an English surgeon and anatomist and trained under Henry Cline and John Hunter before being appointed demonstrator of anatomy in 1789. This was the start to a well-renowned career as professor of anatomy and surgery throughout England culminating in receiving baronetcy in 1820 and becoming sergeant surgeon to George IV in 1828. He made tremendous contributions to the early advancement in surgery including his seminal work on hernias and surgical techniques in the management of vascular aneurysms. He first described his eponymous findings in his text “On the Anatomy of the Breast” in 1840.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Cooper AS. On the Anatomy of the Breast. 1840; London.

Ep-PAINE-nym



Tail of Spence

Other Known Aliasesprocessus lateralis mammae

Definitiontriangular, tongue-shaped portion of breast tissue that extends superiorly and laterally toward the axilla, perforating the deep axillary fascia where it terminating in close proximity to the axillary lymph nodes.

Clinical Significance Due to location of this breast tissue, many women may not exam this portion of the breast during self-exams. Therefore, given its close proximity to the axillary lymph nodes, providers need to pay close attention to this anatomic region.

Tail of Spence occupies the space where the #3 and #4 nodal regions are

HistoryNamed after James Spence (1812-1882), who was a Scottish surgeon and received his medical doctorate from the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1832. He went on to have a prolific career in teaching anatomy in the classroom and in the dissecting hall at various schools and universities, culminating in serving as chair of systematic surgery and Professor of Surgical Science at Edinburgh University in 1864. Clinically, he served as full house surgeon at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary for many years leading up to his appointment as Surgeon in Ordinary to Queen Victoria in Scotland in 1865. He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1866 and served as president of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh from 1867-1869.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com

Ep-PAINE-nym



Janeway Lesions

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitionnon-tender, small erythematous or hemorrhagic lesions on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet.

Clinical Significance these lesions are one of the classic, pathognomonic findings in infectious endocarditis. They are caused by septic emboli which deposit bacteria in the dermis of the skin causing microabscesses. In fact, cultures can be taken from these lesions.

HistoryNamed after Edward G. Janeway (1841-1911), who was an American pathologist and received his medical doctorate from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York in 1864. He had a prolific career practicing in and around New York city primarily at Bellevue Hospital and served as Health Commissioner of New York from 1875-1882. He went on to become one of the founders of the Association of American Physicians in 1886, as well as president of the Academy of Medicine in 1897 and 1898. A contemporary of Sir William Osler, Janeway was regarded as one of America’s premier internists of the late nineteeth and early twentieth century. He first noted his eponymous finding in 1899 as a “peculiar skin lesion”, but the eponym was first coined by Emanuel Libman in 1906 and later explained in a footnote in an article in 1923.


References

  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Prutkin JM, Fye WB. Edward G. Janeway, clinician and pathologist. Clinical cardiology. 2006; 29(8):376-7. [pubmed]
  7. Janeway EG. Certain Clinical Observations upon Heart Disease. The Medical News. New York. 1899;65(9):257-262
  8. Libman E. Johns Hopkins Medicine. 1906
  9. Libman E. Endocarditis. Journal of American Medical Association. 1923;80(12);813-817