Whipple Procedure

Other Known Aliasespancreaticoduodenectomy

Definitionpancreaticoduodenectomy cholecystectomy, choledochojejunostomy, pancreaticojejunostomy, and gastrojejunostomy

Clinical Significance this type of surgery is performed to resect pancreatic head tumors. It generally performed at large, high-volume medical centers as this has been shown to reduce mortality to less than 5%. An experienced surgeon can complete this surgery in < 6 hours with < 500mL of blood loss. Barring any postoperative complications, most patients are discharged from the hospital in 7-10 days.

HistoryNamed after Allen Oldfather Whipple (1881-1963), who was an American surgeon and received his medical doctorate from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1908. He was appointed faculty at Columbia and Presbyterian Medical Centers before going on to become professor of surgery at his alma mater for the next 25 years. He published the report of his eponymous surgery in 1935 and only performed it 37 times in his lifetime. He also supervised Virginia Apgar and advised her to pursue a career in anesthesiology because he saw an “energy and ability to make significant contributions” that would advance both fields. Other notable accomplishments include helping establish the American Board of Surgery and establishing another eponymous diagnostic triad for insulinoma.


  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Whipple AO, Parsons WB, Mullins CR. TREATMENT OF CARCINOMA OF THE AMPULLA OF VATER. Ann Surg. 1935; 102(4):763-79. [PDF]
  7. Johna S. Allen Oldfather Whipple: A Distinguished Surgeon and Historian Dig Surg. 2003; 20(2):154-162. [link]

#61 – Cholelithiasis and Cholecystitis



  • 4 anatomic areas of gall bladder
    • Fundus
      • Rounded, blind end that extends 1-2 cm beyond the liver margin
      • Contains most of the smooth muscle
    • Body
      • Main storage area
      • Contains the elastic tissue allowing for distention
        • Normally holds 30-50mL and can stretch to 300mL
    • Infundibulum (Hartmann’s Pouch)
      • Mucosal outpouching at the junction of the neck and cystic duct
    • Neck
      • Lies in the deepest part of the fossa
  • Cystic Artery
    • Branch of the right hepatic artery
    • Found in the cystohepatic triangle
      • Cystic duct, common hepatic duct, superior/inferior margin of liver
      • Triangle of Calot
        • Cystic duct, common hepatic duct, cystic artery
        • Lymph node can be found in near the insertion of the cystic artery
          • Calot’s node (Lund’s or Mascagni’s)
  • Cystic duct
    • Spiral valves of Heister
      • Mucosal folds in the proximal cystic duct that make cannulation difficult
    • Joins the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct
    • Highly variable anatomy


  • 80% of bile is stored in the gall bladder
    • Infundibulum secretes glycoproteins to protect mucosa
  • Cholecystokinin released from neuroendocrine cells of the duodenum during meal
    • Stimulates release of bile from gallbladder
      • 50-70% over 30-40 minutes
    • Causes relaxation of Sphincter of Oddi
  • Vagal stimulation causes contraction of gallbladder

Stone Formation

  • Major solutes in bile are bilirubin, bile salts, phospholipids (lecithin), and cholesterol
  • 80% are cholesterol
    • Supersaturation of bile with cholesterol exceeds the ability of phospholipids and bile salts to maintain solubility

Pathogenesis of Cholecystitis

  • Phospholipid A (secreted by the gall bladder mucosa) released in response to gall bladder trauma (stone)
    • Catalyzes conversation of lecithin to lysolecithin
      • Leads to mucosal and luminal irritation and inflammation

Epidemiology and Risk Factors

  • 90-95% of patients with cholecystitis have stones
    • Only 20% of patients with stones with develop cholecystitis
    • 10-15% of patients have stones on autopsy
  • Risk Factors
    • High fat diet
    • Older age
    • Female > male
    • Higher BMI
      • Rapid weight loss
    • Pregnancy
    • Previous surgeries
      • Terminal ileum resection, gastric/duodenal surgery

Signs and Symptoms

  • History
    • Right upper quadrant abdominal pain
      • Steady, “boring” pain lasting hours
      • Worsened by fatty foods
    • Right scapular pain (Boas’ sign)
      • Hyperesthesia between 9th-11th rib
    • Fever, nausea, vomiting, anorexia
  • Physical Examination
    • Fever, tachycardia
    • Peritoneal signs
      • Pain with movement and percussion
    • Voluntary and involuntary guarding
    • +/- jaundice
    • Inspiratory arrest on deep RUQ palpation (Murphy’s sign)

Diagnostic Studies

  • Laboratory Studies
    • Leukocytosis with neutrophilic shift
    • LFTs generally normal, but may show:
      • Elevated direct (conjugated) bilirubin
      • Elevated alkaline phosphatase
      • Elevated GGT
  • Ultrasound is the initial test of choice
    • Length > 10 cm
    • Wall thickness > 3mm
    • Pericholecystic fluid
    • Sludge
  • Cholescintigraphy using 99m Tc-hepatic iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) Scan
    • Used if ultrasound is inconclusive
    • Intravenous injection of HIDA and visualization of dye in gallbladder, bile ducts, and small bowel within 30-60min
      • If not visualized after 1 hour, morphine can be given and waiting 3-4 hours
        • If no visualization = cholecystitis
  • Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)
    • Used if evidence of choledocolithiasis or elevated LFTs


  • Admission
  • IV fluids
  • NSAIDs
    • Ketorolac 30-60mg IV/IM
  • Opioids
    • Meperidine NOT superior to morphine
  • Antibiotics
    • Low Risk
    • High Risk
  • Indication for Emergent Cholecystectomy
    • Necrosis
    • Perforation
    • Emphysematous cholecystitis
    • High fever
    • Hemodynamic instability
  • Interval Cholecystectomy (low risk)
    • Within 3 days of admission after therapies above and clinical improvement
    • Most can be discharged in 1-2 days postop
  • Gall bladder drainage (high risk)
    • Percutaneous cholecystostomy
      • Critically ill or septic
      • > 72 hours from symptom onset
      • Failure of antibiotic therapy
      • No coagulopathy
    • Endoscopic transpapillary/transmural drainage
      • Liver disease
      • Ascites
      • Coagulopathy
    • If improvement within 72 hours, proceed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy
      • If not, may need emergent open cholecystectomy
Percutaneous Cholecystostomy

Management Algorithm

Steps of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

  1. Dissect peritoneum overlying the cystic duct and artery
  2. Division and clipping of cystic duct close to gallbladder
    • Perform intraoperative cholangiogram to evaluate CBD
    • If clear, then two clips close to common bile duct and ligate
  3. Dissect cystic artery, one clip close distal and two clips proximal, and ligate
  4. Dissection of gall bladder from liver bed
  5. Cauterize, irrigate, suction, and obtain hemostasis of liver bed
  6. Remove gall bladder

Cottage Physician (1898)


  1. Blackbourne LH.  Surgical Recall.  6th Edition.  2012.
  2. Halpin V. Acute cholecystitis. BMJ Clin Evid. 2014; 2014:. [PDF]
  3. Haisley KR, Hunter JG. Gallbladder and the Extrahepatic Biliary System. In: Brunicardi F, Andersen DK, Billiar TR, Dunn DL, Kao LS, Hunter JG, Matthews JB, Pollock RE. eds. Schwartz’s Principles of Surgery, 11e. McGraw-Hill; Accessed June 14, 2020. https://accessmedicine-mhmedical-com.ezproxy.uthsc.edu/content.aspx?bookid=2576&sectionid=216215815
  4. Haubrich WS. Calot of the triangle of Calot. Gastroenterology. 2002; 123(5):1440. [pubmed]
  5. Singer AJ, McCracken G, Henry MC, Thode HC Jr, Cabahug CJ. Correlation among clinical, laboratory, and hepatobiliary scanning findings in patients with suspected acute cholecystitis. Ann Emerg Med. 1996; 28(3):267-72. [pubmed]
  6. Shea JA, Berlin JA, Escarce JJ, et al. Revised estimates of diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity in suspected biliary tract disease. Arch Intern Med. 1994; 154(22):2573-81. [pubmed]
  7. Park MS, Yu JS, Kim YH, et al. Acute cholecystitis: comparison of MR cholangiography and US. Radiology. 1998; 209(3):781-5. [pubmed]
  8. Thompson DR. Narcotic analgesic effects on the sphincter of Oddi: a review of the data and therapeutic implications in treating pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001; 96(4):1266-72. [pubmed]
  9. Okamoto K, Suzuki K, Takada T, et al. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: flowchart for the management of acute cholecystitis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2018; 25(1):55-72. [pubmed]
  10. Solomkin JS, Mazuski JE, Bradley JS, et al. Diagnosis and management of complicated intra-abdominal infection in adults and children: guidelines by the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2010; 50(2):133-64. [pubmed]
  11. Hatzidakis AA, Prassopoulos P, Petinarakis I, et al. Acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients: percutaneous cholecystostomy vs conservative treatment. Eur Radiol. 2002; 12(7):1778-84. [pubmed]

PAINE #PANCE Pearl – Surgery


What are some of the validated scoring systems for patients with suspected appendicitis and how do you use them in clinical decision making?


There are three validated scoring systems used in pretest probability and severity assessment of patients with suspected appendicitis.

  • Alvarado Score
  • Appendicitis Inflammatory Response (AIR) Score
  • Pediatric Appendicitis Score


Heller Myotomy

Other Known Aliasesnone

DefinitionLigation of the external muscle fibers of the lower esophageal sphincter

Clinical Significance this type of surgery can be open, laparoscopically, or endoscopically and is used to treat achalasia by relieving the constriction of the lower esophageal sphincter and allowing food to pass into the stomach. This is often combined with a Nissen fundoplication to prevent reflux after.

HistoryNamed after Ernst Heller (1877-1964), who was a German surgeon and received his medical doctorate from the University of Leipzig. He would serve as a military surgeon during the first World War from 1914-1918 before returning to Leipzig as chief surgeon of Saint George County Hospital. He had a fairly prestigous career in academic surgery, publishing over 80 scientific papers during his career and culminating as Professor of Surgery at the University of Leipzig in 1949. It was in 1913, as an assistant professor to Erwin Payr, that he performed his eponymous procedure on 39yo man with achalasia. He would publish this case report in 1914 and followed this patient for 7 years tracking his progression and documenting his now disease free condition.


  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Heller E. Extramukose Cardiaplastik beim chronischen Cardiospasmus mit Dilatation des Oesophagus. Mitt GrenzgebMed Chir. 1914;27:141–149.
  7. Andreoll NA, Lope LR, Malafai O. Heller’s myotomy: a hundred years of success! Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2014; 27(1):1-2. [PDF]
  8. Haubrich WS. Heller of the Heller Myotomy Gastroenterology. 2006; 130(2):333. [link]
  9. Payne W. Heller’s contribution to the surgical treatment of achalasia of the esophagus The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1989; 48(6):876-881. [link]


Nissen Fundoplication

Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitionwrapping of the fundus of the stomach around the lower esophagus to re-enforce the LES and prevent esophageal sliding.

Clinical Significance this type of surgery can be performed open or laparoscopic to treat GERD with a hiatal hernia when medical management fails. Traditionally, a Nissen is a complete 360-degree wrap, and there are several variations of this procedure that involve incomplete wrapping on various sides of the esophagus.

HistoryNamed after Rudolph Nissen (1896-1981), who was a Jewish-German surgeon who received his medical doctorate from the University of Freiburg in 1921. His medical studies were interrupted by the first World War where he served on the front lines in a medical corp. It was during his service where he would suffer a gunshot to the lung, which would plague him for the rest of his life. He would go on to serve in various surgery departments in Munich, Berlin, and Istanbul where he would become the head of the surgery department in 1933. It was here that he resected an esophageal ulcer from a 28yo patient that required him to remove portion of the lower esophageal sphincter in the process. He decided to wrap a portion of the stomach around the lower esophagus to strengthen the sphincter and the patient reported greatly improved reflux symptoms. It wasn’t until 1955 when he reflected on this case and performed the procedure on two patients for reflux esophagitis and published the results in 1956. Of note, he also operated on Albert Einstein in 1948 to wrap his AAA with cellophane (which was the treatment at the time).


  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Nissen R. [A simple operation for control of reflux esophagitis]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1956;86(Suppl 20):590-2.
  7. Ellis Jr., FH. The Nissen Fundoplication. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;54:1231-1235.


Special thanks to Morgan Bechtle, PA-S, 2nd year clinical student from the Drexel University PA Program, who did the leg work on this eponym


Other Known Aliasesnone

Definitionmedical rating system used to evaluate the condition of a newborn immediately after birth.

Clinical Significance first presented in 1952, it is a method for evaluating the status of a newborn and it’s response to resuscitation immediately after birth. It consists of five major criteria-heart rate, respiratory rate, muscle tone, reflex response, and color- which are observed and given a score of 0, 1, or 2 points. Today the test is performed at one minute and five minutes after birth. Neonates with a score of 7-10 generally require no further intervention, with lower scores indicating the possible need for assisted respiration.

HistoryNamed after Virginia Apgar (1909-1974), who was a doctor at New York-Presbyterian and the first woman to become a full professor at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. She spent most of her career studying obstetrical anesthesia and its effect on the newborn. As a young doctor, Apgar was appalled by the treatment of premature, apneic babies. The practice at the time was to list apneic or malformed newborns as stillborn and place them out of sight to die. Outraged by this practice, Dr. Apgar developed a method that would ensure the observation and documentation of the true condition of each newborn during the first minute of life. The Apgar score was first published in 1953 in a paper titled “A Proposal for a New Method of Evaluation of the Newborn Infant” in which she highlighted the need for a “grading system of newborn infants [that can be used] as a basis for discussion and comparison of obstetric practices, types of maternal pain relief, and the effects resuscitation”. Later, her research went on to show that lower Apgar scores are associated with higher neonatal morbidity and mortality.


  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Changing the face of medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from https://cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/. Updated June 3, 2015. Accessed May 23, 2020.
  7. McKee-Garrett, T. Overview of the routine management of the healthy newborn infant. UpToDate. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-the-routine-management-of-the-healthy-newborn-infant?search=apgar%20score&sectionRank=1&usage_type=default&anchor=H3&source=machineLearning&selectedTitle=1~53&display_rank=1#H3. Updated May 15, 2020. Accessed 26, 2020.
  8. Fernandes, C. Neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room. UpToDate. Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/neonatal-resuscitation-in-the-delivery-room?search=apgar%20score&topicRef=5068&source=see_link#H2429918249. Updated April 10, 2020. Accessed May 26, 2020.
  9. Apgar score: Signs and definitions. Anesthesiology. 2005 April; 102: 885-857. Retrieved from https://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1942027.
  10. It happened here: The Apgar score. New York-Presbyterian. Retrieved from https://healthmatters.nyp.org/apgar-score/. Accessed May 26, 2020.
  11. Apgar, virginia. A Proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia 32 (1953): 260-267. https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/spotlight/cp/catalog/nlm:nlmuid-101584647X152-doc. Accessed May 30, 2020. 
  12. Finster M, Wood M. The Apgar score has survivied the test of time. Anesthesiology. 2005 April; 102: 885-857. https://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1942027
  13. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, New York World Telegram & Sun Collection. Retrieved from https://cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_12.html.9.       The Mount Holycoke College Archives and Special Collections. Retrieved from https://cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_12.html.


Frégoli Delusion

Other Known Aliasesdelusion of doubles

Definitionmistaken belief that some person currently present in the deluded person’s environment (typically a stranger) is a familiar person in disguise.

Clinical Significance to the patient, the stranger is believed to be psychologically identical to this known person (who is not present) even though the deluded person perceives the physical appearance of the stranger as being different from the known person’s typical appearance. There are 4 subtypes:

Historythis syndrome was first published in 1927 by Courbon and Fail who describe a case of a young woman who believed she was being pursued by two Parisian actresses in disguise. They named this delusional syndrome after Leopoldo Frégoli, who was an Italian stage actor with an extraordinary ability to impersonate and mimic others on stage.


  1. Firkin BG and Whitwirth JA.  Dictionary of Medical Eponyms. 2nd ed.  New York, NY; Parthenon Publishing Group. 1996.
  2. Bartolucci S, Forbis P.  Stedman’s Medical Eponyms.  2nd ed.  Baltimore, MD; LWW.  2005.
  3. Yee AJ, Pfiffner P. (2012).  Medical Eponyms (Version 1.4.2) [Mobile Application Software].  Retrieved http://itunes.apple.com.
  4. Whonamedit – dictionary of medical eponyms. http://www.whonamedit.com
  5. Up To Date. www.uptodate.com
  6. Langdon, R., Connaughton, E. and Coltheart, M. The Fregoli Delusion: A Disorder of Person Identification and Tracking. Top Cogn Sci. 2014;6:615-631.
  7. Courbon, P., & Fail, G. (1927). Syndrome d”‘illusion de Frégoli” et schizophrénie [Syndrome of the “illusion of Fregoli” and schizophrenia]. Bulletin de la Société Clinique de Médecine Mentale, 20, 121–125

#60 – Psychiatry Screening Tools

EpPAINEnym – Finkelstein's Test Physician Assistant IN Education (PAINE) Podcast

This weekly addition to the PAINE Podcast is a quick review and history of medical eponyms
  1. EpPAINEnym – Finkelstein's Test
  2. EpPAINEnym – Ghon Focus and Complex
  3. EpPAINEnym – Cheyne-Stokes Respirations
  4. Episode #62 – Pleural Effusions
  5. EpPAINEnym – Light's Criteria

Purpose Behind Screening

  • Many of the more common conditions in psychiatry are often “silent”
    • Meaning that it can be difficult to objectively diagnosis
    • Some patient also don’t like talking about their illness with other clinical staff
  • These screening tools can be given to any patient to complete without having to talk about it out loud and then reviewed by you to see if there needs to be any further discussion
  • Some of these (GAD-7, PHQ-9) can also be used to track changes in the scores during therapy or treatment to see how well it is working

Link to SAMHSA-HRSA Page for Screening Tools

Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) Scale

  • Screening for anxiety
    • Newer validation studies actually show some applicability to panic disorders, social phobias, and PTSD
  • Developed in 2006
  • Validated in 2008 and 2013
  • Series of seven questions asking about symptoms over the past two weeks with four different grades for each question
  • Interpretation

Patient Health Questionnaire Nine Item (PHQ-9) Scale

  • Screening for depression
  • Developed in 2001
  • Validated in 2010
  • Series of nine questions asking about symptoms over the past two weeks with four different grades for each question
  • Interpretation
  • PHQ-2
    • Can be used as a brief screening tool using the first two questions from the PHQ-9
      • Sensitivity – 76% and Specificity – 87%

Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-CSSR)

  • Screening for suicidal ideation and behavior
  • Developed in 2011
  • Validated in 2016
  • Series of six questions asking about suicidal thoughts and actions over the past month
  • Suicidal Behavior Question
    • No reported suicidal behavior
    • Actual attempt
    • Interrupted attempt
    • Aborted attempt or self-interrupted attempt
    • Preparatory acts or behavior
    • Suicide
  • Interpretation

Alcohol and Substance Misuse


  • Combined alcohol and illicit drug screening tool
  • Developed in 1995
  • Series of four questions with “yes/no” answers
  • Shorted to a two-item screening in 2001
    • “In the last year, have you ever drunk or used drugs more than you meant to?”
    • “Have you felt you wanted or needed to cut down on your drinking or drug use in the last year?”
      • Sensitivity and Specificity – 80%
      • Positive Likelihood Ratio – 1.93 (yes to one) and 8.77 (yes to both)

Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT)

  • Screening for alcohol only
  • Developed by WHO in 1998, but updated in 2001
  • Series of ten items asking about alcohol consumption with five grading categories
  • Interpretation
    • > 90% sensitivity and specificity for unhealthy alcohol use with a score of ≥ 8
    • Uses the first three questions only (uses 6 or more drinks)
    • Men
      • 86% sensitivity and 89% specificity with a score of ≥ 4
    • Women
      • 73% sensitivity and 91% specificity with a score of ≥ 3

Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10)

  • Screening for illegal drugs only
  • Developed in 1982
    • Originally 20 items, but condensed to 10
  • Simplified to a single item in 2010
  • Series of ten questions asking about illegal/illicit drug use over the past 12 months with “yes/no” responses
  • Interpretation
    • Score of ≥ 3 suggests drug use with adverse consequences
    • Single Item
      • “How many times in the past year have you used an illegal drug or used a prescription medication for non-medical reasons?”
      • Yes has a 100% sensitivity and 74% specificity for drug-use disorder and a 93% sensitivity and 94% specificity for past-year drug use

Intimate Partner Violence

  • Think of your standard framing statement prior to jumping right into these scoring systems
    • Massachusetts Medical Society Committee on Violence suggests:
      • “Violence can be a problem in many people’s lives, so I now ask every patient about trauma or abuse they may have experienced in a relationship.”
      • “Many patients I see are coping with an abusive relationship, so I’ve started asking about intimate partner violence routinely.”
      • “When people have the symptom you are experiencing, and the approaches you’ve tried don’t make it better, I wonder if they could have been hurt at some point in their life. Has anything like this ever happened to you?”

Humiliation, Afraid, Rape, Kick (HARK)

  • Developed in 2007
  • 4 questions asking about experiences over the last 12 months
    • Humiliated or emotionally abused in other ways by your partner or your ex-partner?
    • Afraid of your partner or ex-partner?
    • Raped or forced to have any kind of sexual activity by your partner or ex-partner?
    • Kicked, hit, slapped or otherwise physically hurt by your partner or ex-partner?
  • Interpretation
    • If answered yes to any of the questions:
      • 81% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 83% PPV, 94% NPV, and 16 positive likelihood ratio

Hurt, Insult, Threaten, Scream (HITS) Scale

  • Developed in 1998
  • 4 questions graded on a five-point scale of frequency
  • Interpretation
    • Score of ≥ 10 indicates likely victimization
      • 91% sensitivity

Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST)

  • Developed in 2000
  • 8 questions that assess physical and emotional IPV with a 3 point graded response based on frequency
  • Interpretation
    • WAST-SF (short form) is the first two questions
      • If both “no”, then stop
      • If either “a lot of tension” or “great difficulty”, then proceed with the rest of the WAST


  1. Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Archives of internal medicine. 2006; 166(10):1092-7. [pubmed]
  2. Löwe B, Decker O, Müller S, et al. Validation and standardization of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) in the general population. Medical care. 2008; 46(3):266-74. [pubmed]
  3. Kertz S, Bigda-Peyton J, Bjorgvinsson T. Validity of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale in an acute psychiatric sample. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy. ; 20(5):456-64. [pubmed]
  4. Hunot V, Churchill R, Silva de lima M, Teixeira V. Psychological therapies for generalised anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(1):CD001848. [pubmed]
  5. Hendriks GJ, Oude voshaar RC, Keijsers GP, Hoogduin CA, Van balkom AJ. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for late-life anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;117(6):403-11. [pubmed]
  6. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(9):606-13. [pubmed]
  7. Arroll B, Goodyear-smith F, Crengle S, et al. Validation of PHQ-2 and PHQ-9 to screen for major depression in the primary care population. Ann Fam Med. 2010;8(4):348-53. [pubmed]
  8. Manea L, Gilbody S, Hewitt C, et al. Identifying depression with the PHQ-2: A diagnostic meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016;203:382-395. [pubmed]
  9. Posner K, Brown GK, Stanley B, et al. The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale: initial validity and internal consistency findings from three multisite studies with adolescents and adults. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168(12):1266-77. [pubmed]
  10. Madan A, Frueh BC, Allen JG, et al. Psychometric Reevaluation of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale: Findings From a Prospective, Inpatient Cohort of Severely Mentally Ill Adults. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016;77(7):e867-73. [pubmed]
  11. Brown RL, Rounds LA. Conjoint screening questionnaires for alcohol and other drug abuse: criterion validity in a primary care practice. Wis Med J. 1995;94(3):135-40. [pubmed]
  12. Brown RL, Leonard T, Saunders LA, Papasouliotis O. A two-item conjoint screen for alcohol and other drug problems. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2001;14(2):95-106. [pubmed]
  13. Bush K, Kivlahan DR, Mcdonell MB, Fihn SD, Bradley KA. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): an effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(16):1789-95. [pubmed]
  14. Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders JB, Monteiro M. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for Use in primary Care. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001, 2nd Edition. [link]
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PAINE #PANCE Pearl – Psychiatry


A 20yo man, with no significant past medical history, is brought in by his parents for evaluation of concerning behaviors. They state he often feels he “needs” to arrange the items in his room in a certain way and becomes very agitated if they are moved. He also must make sure that there is no dirt on his shoes before he walks in his room and is meticulous in his cleaning endeavors every day. His parents are worried about his level of functioning and ability to move out and maintain his own apartment. He denies any thoughts of self-harm, homicidal ideations, or audio-visual hallucinations. On physical examination, he seems composed, non-distracted, and answers all questions appropriately. When asked about these behaviors, he recognizes that they are a problem, but states he can’t relax and has severe anxiety unless these are taken care of.

  1. What is the most likely diagnosis based on this presentation?
  2. What criteria must be met per the DSM-V for diagnosis?


The most likely diagnosis is obsessive compulsive disorder and is defined by the DSM-V using the below criteria:

A. Presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both

  • Obsessions as defined by:
    • Recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and unwanted, and that in most individuals cause marked anxiety or distress.
    • The individual attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts, urges, or images, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action (ie, by performing a compulsion).
  • Compulsions as defined by:
    • Repetitive behaviors (eg, hand washing, ordering, checking) or mental acts (eg, praying, counting, repeating words silently) that the individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly.
    • The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts either are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent, or are clearly excessive.

B. The obsessions or compulsions are time-consuming (eg, take more than one hour per day) or cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The obsessive-compulsive symptoms are not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (eg, a drug of abuse, a medication) or another medical condition.

D. The disturbance is not better explained by the symptoms of another mental disorder.

DSM-V Specifiers

  • Patient’s degree of insight into the illness
    • With good or fair insight
      • The individual recognizes that obsessive-compulsive disorder beliefs are definitely or probably not true or that they may or may not be true.
    • With poor insight
      • The individual thinks obsessive-compulsive disorder beliefs are probably true.
    • With absent insight/delusional beliefs
      • The individual is completely convinced that obsessive-compulsive disorder beliefs are true.
  • Tic-Related – The individual has a current or past history of a tic disorder.


Charles Bonnet Syndrome

Other Known Aliasesvisual release hallucinations

Definitionsymptoms of visual hallucinations that occur in patients with visual loss

Clinical Significance these release hallucinations can be simple, non-formed images (such as lines, flashes, shapes, etc.) or the can be formed images (such as people, animals, scenes, etc.). These patients can often be missed diagnosed as psychosis or early dementia. Diagnosis is made in the absence of other psychiatric illness or other causes of hallucinations.

HistoryNamed after Charles Bonnet (1720-1793), who was a Genevan naturalist who was a lawyer by trade, but fascinated by the natural sciences. He spent the majority of career observing and studying insects, germ theory, and philosophy. He described the eponym that bears his name in 1760 in his book “Essai analytique sur les facultés de l’âme“, where he described the hallucinations of his 87yo grandfather who was nearly blind from cataracts


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